In particular, these carbon nanoscrolls

are structurally

In particular, these carbon nanoscrolls

are structurally made by continuous graphene Saracatinib purchase sheets rolled-up in a tube-like structure with a Lenvatinib molecular weight hollow core, resembling a multi-walled carbon nanotube [18]. However, a number of morphologies are produced by this mechanical approach; in fact, the graphene monolayers, generated from the GNP exfoliation, can roll in different ways under the effect of the applied shear-friction force. Cylindrical and fusiform nanoscroll structures are usually found together with partially rolled, multi-rolled, and other irregularly shaped rolled structures. In addition, carbon nanoscrolls characterized by a significant length (few hundred microns) are not stereo-rigid and appear like a sort of hair since they are bended in different points by the presence of defects (narrowing) along their structure. Figure 2 OM, TEM, and SEM micrographs of the produced carbon nanoscrolls (from top to bottom). Cylindrical nanoscrolls

have very uniform diameters and tend to form bundles like carbon nanotubes because of π-π interactions (see the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrograph given in Figure  2). Typical lengths, L, of the produced cylindrical nanoscrolls range from 0.5 to 2.5 μm, and the diameter, D, Q-VD-Oph datasheet is ca. 100 nm. Consequently, each cylindrical nanoscroll should contain from two to eight inner layers, N = L / πD. In Additional file 1, a more precise calculation of the inner layer number is reported, considering an Archimedean spiral-type structure. Nanoscrolls containing only a few graphene layers result to be quite transparent (see the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs in Figure  2). However, for fusiform nanoscrolls, the number of layers is greater by a factor √2 compared to that for cylindrical nanoscrolls. For a length L = 2.5 μm, we have N = L√2 / πD (approximately 11). Both cylindrical and fusiform carbon nanoscrolls are hollow, and therefore, they might be of particular interest for many technological applications like hydrogen storage,

Adenosine triphosphate drug delivery, novel composite nanomaterial fabrication, etc. The produced CNSs have been characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy (Horiba Jobin-Yvon TriAx monochromator (Kyoto, Japan), equipped with a liquid-nitrogen-cooled charge-coupled detector and a grating of 1,800 grooves/mm, which allows a final spectral resolution of 4 cm−1). Raman spectroscopy has been widely used as a fast, powerful, and nondestructive method for characterizing sp 2 carbon systems and can provide information about the defects of the structure. Results of the micro-Raman spectroscopy scattering measurements carried out on the CNSs fabricated by the shear-friction method are shown in Figure  3. The spectra were recorded under ambient condition using a He-Ne (632.8 nm) laser source. The laser light was focused to a 1- to 2-μm spot size on the samples under low-power irradiation to avoid additional heating effect during the measurement.

Acknowledgements We are grateful to Dr P Desai for the K26GFP v

Acknowledgements We are grateful to Dr. P. Desai for the K26GFP virus and Dr. Longnecker for CHO-K1 cells VE821 and HSV-1 (KOS) gL86. We are also indebted to Dr. van der Sluijs for the anti-Rab27a antibody, Dr. M. Izquierdo for the HOM-2 cells, Dr. L. Montoliu for MeWo cell line and Dr. Campagnoni for his kind gift of the HOG cell line. Carlos Sánchez, M. Angeles Muñoz and Verónica Labrador, are also acknowledged for their assistance with the use of the confocal microscope. We are also grateful to Fernando Carrasco, Laura Tabera, Alberto Mudarra and Sandra

Gonzalo, members of the Genomics Core Facility at CBMSO, for their technical assistance. Silvia Andrade is also acknowledged for her technical assistance with flow cytometer and Beatriz García for her technical support. References 1. Noseworthy JH: Progress in determining the this website causes and treatment of multiple sclerosis. Nature 1999, 399:A40-A47.PubMedCrossRef 2. Christensen T: Human

herpesviruses in MS. Int MS j/MS Forum 2007, 14:41–47. 3. Sanders VJ, Waddell AE, Felisan SL, Li X, Conrad AJ, Tourtellotte WW: Herpes simplex virus in postmortem multiple sclerosis brain tissue. Arch Neurol 1996, 53:125–133.PubMedCrossRef 4. Charpin C, Gambarelli D, Lavaut MN, Seigneurin JM, Raphael M, Berard M, Toga M: Herpes simplex virus antigen detection in human acute encephalitis: an immunohistochemical study using avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. Acta neuropathol 1985, 68:245–252.PubMedCrossRef 5. Skoldenberg B: Herpes simplex encephalitis. Scand J Infect Dis 1996, 100:8–13. 6. Kastrukoff LF, Lau AS, Kim SU:

Herpes simplex virus type 1 induced multifocal demyelination of the central nervous CH5183284 cost system in mice. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1988, 540:654–656.PubMedCrossRef 7. Kastrukoff LF, Lau AS, Kim SU: Multifocal CNS demyelination following peripheral inoculation with herpes simplex virus type 1. Ann Neurol 1987, 22:52–59.PubMedCrossRef 8. Bello-Morales R, Fedetz M, Alcina A, Tabares E, Lopez-Guerrero JA: High susceptibility of a human oligodendroglial cell line to herpes simplex type 1 infection. J neurovirol 2005, 11:190–198.PubMedCrossRef 9. Mettenleiter TC: Budding events in herpesvirus morphogenesis. Virus res 2004, 106:167–180.PubMedCrossRef 10. Mettenleiter TC, Klupp BG, Granzow H: Herpesvirus Morin Hydrate assembly: an update. Virus res 2009, 143:222–234.PubMedCrossRef 11. Johnson DC, Baines JD: Herpesviruses remodel host membranes for virus egress. Nature rev 2011, 9:382–394.CrossRef 12. Granzow H, Klupp BG, Fuchs W, Veits J, Osterrieder N, Mettenleiter TC: Egress of alphaherpesviruses: comparative ultrastructural study. J Virol 2001, 75:3675–3684.PubMedCrossRef 13. Mettenleiter TC: Intriguing interplay between viral proteins during herpesvirus assembly or: the herpesvirus assembly puzzle. Vet Microbiol 2006, 113:163–169.PubMedCrossRef 14. Murphy MA, Bucks MA, O’Regan KJ, Courtney RJ: The HSV-1 tegument protein pUL46 associates with cellular membranes and viral capsids. Virology 2008, 376:279–289.

All sequences were analyzed with RDP3 and GARD software to detect

All sequences were analyzed with RDP3 and GARD software to detect the recombinants. The analysis in silico displayed the recombinants and one parental

strain. B) The E protein gene from MEX_OAX_1656_05 was cloned in TOPO TAV4 to detect possible recombinants and/or the parental sequences. One parental sequence was detected in addition to one recombinant. The first task in this phylogenetic analysis was to determine the best model of nucleotide substitution for DENV-2 virus sequence evolution. This assignment was undertaken using the Model Selection test from DataMonkey online server [28, 29], which compares 201 models of DNA substitution. Our results Mocetinostat molecular weight demonstrated that the best model was TrN93 [30]. Accordingly, the most complex general time-reversible value was the best fit to the data (relative substitution rates of A↔C = 0.057, A↔G = 1, A↔T = 0.057, C↔G = 0.057, C↔T = 1, and G↔T = 0.057); the Ln likelihood = -4550.59; parameter count = 38;

and AIC = 9177.19. Finally, the estimated base composition was A = 0.340, C = 0.278, G = 0.225, and T = 0.157. Our analysis with RDP3 showed that the sequences of isolate MEX_OAX_1038_05 and MEX_OAX_1656_05 present statistical evidence of recombinants for GENECOV (P-Val = 2.467 × 10-2), BOOTSCAN (P-Val = 4.289 × 10-5), MAXCHI (P-Val = 1.438 × 10-5), CHIMERA (P-Val = 3.790 × 10-3), SISCAN (P-Val = 1.108 × 10-9), and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 3SEQ (P-Val = 4.478 × 10-4), in two regions (Figure 2): the first breakpoints were located in 499nt and 512nt respectively; the second breakpoints were located in Vactosertib supplier 868nt and 826nt respectively, and the third breakpoint was located in 2239nt in both recombinants (Figure 2A, 2B respectively). In addition, the analysis with GARD confirmed the breakpoints and recombination data for maximum likelihood. This analysis

displayed the same site for the three breakpoints in both isolates: the first, second and third breakpoints were located in the nucleotides 498, 828 and 2226, respectively (Figure 2C). The recombinant regions were the intersection of prM-M structural gene to intersection of M-E structural genes and the second recombinant region started in the intersection of E-NS1 genes (Figure 2D). Interestingly, we found that the parental major strain was the non-recombinant clone MEX_OAX_1656_05_ C241 (obtained from the MEX_OAX_1656_05 isolate) and the minor parental strain was the Cosmopolitan genotype strain INDI_GWL_102_01 (accession number DQ448235). Figure 2 Recombination plots of structural gene regions from MEX_OAX_1038_05 and MEX_OAX_1656_05 sequences. A) BOOTSCAN plot analysis of the C(91)-prM-E-NS1(2400) gene sequences from the MEX_OAX_1038_05 isolate and the parental strains INDI_GWL102_01 and MEX_OAX_1656_05_C241.

1885, A B Langlois, No 138 (NY, holotype of Amphisphaeria hypox

1885, A.B. Langlois, No. 138 (NY, holotype of Amphisphaeria hypoxylon Ellis & Everh.). Notes Morphology Immotthia was introduced to accommodate a species of Amphisphaeria (A. hypoxylon), which

has bitunicate asci, and is characterized by superficial, ostiolate, periphysate, papillate ascomata, cellular pseudoparaphyses, bitunicate, 8-spored, cylindrical asci, ellipsoid, smooth, brown to reddish brown, 1-septate ascospores (Barr 1987a; Wang et al. 2004). Phylogenetic study None. Concluding remarks It seems that those Amphisphaeria species with bitunicate asci should be assigned to Pleosporales. Morphologically, Immotthia is somewhat comparable with Herpotrichia. Isthmosporella Shearer & J.L. Crane, Mycologia 91: 141 (1999). (Pleosporales, genera incertae sedis) Generic description Quisinostat purchase Habitat freshwater, saprobic. Ascomata small- to medium-sized, scattered, immersed, erumpent to superficial, globose, papillate, ostiolate, periphysate, membranous. Peridium 2-layered, outer layer composed of brown, find more pseudoparenchymatic, fusoid-cylindric cells, inner layer composed of fusoid, subhyaline to pale brown, compressed cells. Hamathecium of rare, broad, septate, interascal pseudoparaphyses. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, oblong to clavate, with a short pedicel, ocular chamber not observed. Ascospores 3–4 seriate, cylindrical to fusoid, isthmoid at centre, constricted at septa, isthmus 1-septate, surrounded by a gelatinous

sheath. Anamorphs reported for genus: none. Literature: Shearer and Crane 1999. Type species Isthmosporella pulchra Shearer & J.L. Crane, Mycologia 91: 142 (1999). (Fig. 38) Fig. 38 Isthmosporella pulchra MS-275 clinical trial (from ILLS 53086, holotype). a Section of an ascoma. b Section of a partial peridium. c–e Broadly clavate asci with short pedicels. f Pseudoparaphyses. g–j Ascospores. Note the 2-celled isthmus in J and mucilaginous sheath in G and H. Scale bars: a = 50 μm, b–j = 20 μm Ascomata 240–330 μm diam., scattered on decorticated wood, immersed, erumpent to superficial, globose, black, papillate, papilla short, cylindrical, 60 μm long × 55 μm

wide, ostiolate, periphysate, membranous Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) (Fig. 38a). Peridium 2-layered, outer 3–4 cell layers composed of brown, pseudoparenchymatic, fusoid-cylindric cells, 2–6.5 μm long; inner layer composed of 5–7 rows of fusoid, subhyaline to pale brown compressed cells, 11–20 × 2–3.5 μm diam. (Fig. 38a and b). Hamathecium of rare, broad, septate, interascal pseudoparaphyses (Fig. 38f). Asci (95-)135–160(−175) × (25-)30–45(−60) μm, 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, oblong to clavate, with a short pedicel, ocular chamber not observed (Fig. 38c, d and e). Ascospores 80–105(−110) × (7-)8–10 μm, 3–4-seriate, cylindrical to fusoid, isthmoid at centre, sometimes bent at isthmus and becoming u- or v- shaped, end cells tapering, 12–17-phragmoseptate, constricted at septa, isthmus 1-septate, 2–5.5 × 2–4.5 μm diam.

Thus, wavelength-dependent differences in the fraction of inciden

Thus, wavelength-dependent differences in the fraction of selleck inhibitor incident light reaching the

photosystems are reflected by differences in Φco2, but at low light intensities not necessarily by differences in Φ PSII. Second, carotenoids differ in the efficiency (35–90 %) with which they transfer excitation energy to chlorophylls, whereas the chlorophyll to chlorophyll energy transfer efficiency in antenna complexes is nearly 100 % (Croce et al. 2001; de Weerd et al. 2003a, b; Caffarri et al. 2007). The transfer efficiency of carotenoids depends on their chemical structure buy Copanlisib and position within the photosynthetic apparatus. Carotenoids have absorption maxima in the blue and green regions, and therefore, blue light is used less efficiently by the photosystems than e.g., red light. Wavelength-dependent differences in the fraction of light absorbed by carotenoids affect the fraction of absorbed light reaching the

RCs of the photosystems. This leads Vistusertib manufacturer to the same argument as in the previous paragraph, i.e., this effect decreases Φco2 but at low light intensities does not necessarily decrease Φ PSII. Third, leaves contain non-photosynthetic pigments such as flavonoids and free carotenoids. These pigments predominantly absorb light in the UV region but also in the blue and green part of the spectrum. These non-photosynthetic pigments are not connected to the photosystems and do not transfer the absorbed energy to the photosynthetic apparatus (see Question 31 for a discussion of these compounds and their detection). The absorption of light by non-photosynthetic pigments will

reduce the fraction of the incident light reaching the photosystems especially in the blue and to a smaller extent in the green. Again this will affect Φco2 at these wavelengths but at low light intensities not necessarily Φ PSII. Finally, the pigment composition and absorbance properties of PSI and PSII differ, and therefore, the balance of excitation between the two photosystems is wavelength dependent for a given state of the photosynthetic apparatus (e.g., Evans 1986; Chow et al. 1990a, b; Melis 1991; Walters and Horton 1995; Hogewoning et al. 2012). In practice, when light within a narrow-band Doxacurium chloride wavelength range is used to illuminate a white-light acclimated leaf, one of the two photosystems is often excited more strongly than the other. Any imbalance in excitation between the two photosystems results in a loss of Φco2. This wavelength dependence is especially clear in the FR region. FR light still quite efficiently excites PSI but is very inefficiently absorbed by PSII (see Question 16). This is called “the red drop” and, as noted above, this leads to a rapid decline of ΦO2 and consequently of Φco2 as well at wavelengths longer than 685 nm. Obviously, when PSI is excited strongly by FR light, but PSII is excited only very weakly, electron flow from PSII to PSI is not restricted, and therefore, Φ PSII will be high.

Table 5 Fold change in gene expression along the cysteine and met

Table 5 Fold change in gene expression along the cysteine and methionine metabolic pathway check details Gene Product PM vs. WT 0 PM vs. WT 10 PM 0 vs. 10 PM 0 vs. 17.5 WT 0 vs. 10     ML LL ML LL ML LL ML LL ML LL Cthe_0290 homoserine dehydrogenase −1.03 1.21 2.33 1.94 −1.78 −1.38 1.35 1.17 1.45 −1.30 Cthe_0580 aminotransferase class

I and II 1.22 1.48 −1.31 1.17 1.03 −1.00 1.44 2.03 1.64 1.26 Cthe_0715 S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase proenzyme 1.21 1.33 2.95 −1.12 −1.51 −1.64 −1.87 −2.76 −3.67 −1.10 Cthe_0755 aminotransferase class I and II −2.42 −1.28 1.59 −1.40 −1.75 −1.37 −1.60 −2.06 −6.77 −1.25 Cthe_0961 aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase −2.51 −2.11 −2.12 −1.37 1.18 1.15 1.47 2.34 −1.01 −1.34 Cthe_1053 L-lactate dehydrogenase DMXAA molecular weight −1.78 −1.25 1.32 −1.02 −1.41 −1.27 −1.33 −1.16 −3.30 −1.55 Cthe_1200 Adenosylhomocysteinase −1.26 1.07 2.23 1.76 1.39 1.18 1.01 −1.62 −2.02 −1.39 Cthe_1559 Cys/Met metabolism pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent protein −9.22 −5.72 −4.73 −3.97 4.66 3.12 16.05 8.31 2.39 2.17 Cthe_1560 Pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent protein beta subunit −6.16 −2.97 −3.71 −2.65 6.25 3.41 15.55 6.43 3.77 3.05 Cthe_1569 Cys/Met metabolism pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent protein 1.02 1.09 −2.06 −1.83 3.94 2.46 5.21 4.42 8.24 4.90 Cthe_1728 DNA-cytosine methyltransferase

2.09 2.38 −1.21 2.26 1.03 −1.01 1.59 1.80 2.60 1.04 Cthe_1749 DNA-cytosine methyltransferase 1.08 −1.12 −5.98 −2.41 −1.08 1.20 1.13 1.46 5.95 2.58 Cthe_1840 cysteine synthase A −1.52 −1.21 3.14 2.17 1.37 1.27 1.83 −1.27 −3.48 −2.07 Cthe_1842 O-acetylhomoserine/O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase −1.68 −1.54 −1.10 1.52 1.51 1.16 2.46 1.75 −1.02 −2.01 Bold values indicate significantly different levels of express as determined by ANOVA. For the PM vs. WT in 0% and 10% v/v Verteporfin manufacturer Populus hydrolysate, a positive/negative value represents a higher/lower expression level in the PM compared to the WT. For the standard

medium (0%) versus Populus hydrolysate media (10 or 17.5%) positive/negative values represents higher/lower expression levels in the hydrolysate media compared to standard medium. Values are indicated for samples collected during mid-log (ML) and late-log (LL) growth phases. The genes that belong to the general transport category are basic ABC transporter and glycosyl transferase groups which are labeled with multiple COG designations. In some Gram-positive Enzalutamide ic50 organisms, the ATP-binding subunit of an ABC system is not part of a specific transporter complex; instead, it is shared by multiple transporters [49] increasing the efficiency of the cell.

The production of p-nitroaniline (pNA) was monitored at 405 nm D

The production of p-nitroaniline (pNA) was monitored at 405 nm. Detection Mocetinostat datasheet of PaAP antibodies in sera from CF patients Outer membranes were purified as described [46, 47]. Briefly, cells were harvested in stationary phase, resuspended (20% sucrose in 30 mM Tris, pH 8), treated with

DNase I and RNaseA and broken by French Press. Membranes were separated using a sucrose gradient. Purified S470 outer membrane and vesicles (2 μg) were separated by SDS-PAGE and SYPRO Ruby protein stained or transferred to PVDF, immunoblotted using sera (1:10 dilution) from anonymous CF patients or anti-PaAP antibodies, and developed with SuperSignal (Pierce). Acknowledgements We thank J. R. Wright (Duke University) for P. aeruginosa strain S470, C.R.H. Raetz

for strain MT616 and plasmid pJQ200SK, Erich Lanka for plasmid pMMB66EH, and M. Knowles (Adult CF Genetic Modifier Study, UNC-Chapel Hill, NC) for providing CF patient sera, Andy Ghio for providing HBE cells (EPA, NC), Chris Nicchitta (Duke Univeristy Medical Center) for TRAPα and β-tubulin antibodies, and David FitzGerald (NCI, Bethesda, MD) for monoclonal anti-PaAP antibody. We also thank J. Rudolph and T. Hsieh for equipment use, and J.L. Plank for troubleshooting. This work was supported by a Burroughs Wellcome Investigator in Pathogenesis of Infectious Disease Award (to M.J.K.), an American Lung Association research mTOR inhibitor grant, the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, the Thomas H. Davis Research Award of the ALA of NC, and the N.I.H. Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Vesicles primarily colocalize with CT and transferrin in peri-nuclear regions. The data show fluorescently labeled S470 vesicles colocalize with CT and transferrin in perinuclear regions of A549 cells. (PDF 757 KB) Additional file 2: PaAP contributes to the cell association of vesicles in a dose-dependent manner. The data show the amount of PaAP on vesicles correlates with the amount of vesicle association with A549 cells. (PDF 215 KB) Additional file 3: Vesicle expression and 6-phosphogluconolactonase activity of S470APKO5 complemented with

plasmid-expressed PaAP. The data show the lack of PaAP activity in the APKO5 strain, the correlation between secreted aminopeptidase activity of the complemented strain with the amount of PaAP secreted, and that induced, plasmid-expressed PaAP in APKO5 is secreted to the same extent as S470 but is not vesicle-associated. (PDF 171 KB) References 1. Yoon SS, Hennigan RF, Hilliard GM, Ochsner UA, Parvatiyar K, Kamani MC, Allen HL, DeKievit TR, Gardner PR, Schwab U, Rowe JJ, Iglewski BH, McDermott TR, Mason RP, Wozniak DJ, Hancock RE, Parsek MR, Noah TL, Boucher RC, Hassett DJ: Pseudomonas aeruginosa anaerobic respiration in biofilms: relationships to cystic fibrosis pathogenesis. Developmental cell 2002,3(4):593–603.CrossRefPubMed 2.

Conflict of interest The authors have declared no competing inter

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Last Accessed March 26, 2014 25 Hurt CB, Sebastian

J, H

Last Accessed March 26, 2014. 25. Hurt CB, Sebastian

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2 μM MgCl2, 200 μM of each deoxynucleoside triphosphate, 10 pmol

2 μM MgCl2, 200 μM of each deoxynucleoside triphosphate, 10 pmol of each primer and 1 U of Taq polymerase (Invitrogen). PCR amplifications consisted of 3 min at 95°C, 35 cycles of 30 sec at 94°C, 40 sec at 55°C and 1 min 30 sec at 72°C, and finally 10 min at 72°C. Amplified DNA fragments were purified using the QIAquick PCR Purification

Kit (Qiagen). ARDRA was CHIR98014 concentration performed to screen the rrs genes of bacterial isolates in 20 μl reactions containing 200 ng of DNA template, 1 × Buffer Tango™ AZD2171 in vitro and 10 U each of endonucleases RsaI and HhaI (Fermentas, France), as previously described [12]. DNA fragments were separated on 2% agarose gels stained with ethidium bromide with a 50-bp DNA ladder marker (Fermentas). Isolates showing the same restriction pattern with the two endonucleases were considered to be similar. Sequencing of rrs rRNA genes and phylogenetic analyses Both strands of 16S rDNA amplified from

isolates representative of each ARDRA profile were sequenced at Biofidal-DTAMB (FR Bio-Environment and Health, Lyon, France). Sequences were manually curated and assembled from forward and reverse primer-generated sequences. Curated sequences were then compared to available bacterial sequences in GenBank using the BLASTn program in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (http://​blast.​ncbi.​nlm.​nih.​gov/​Blast.​cgi). The Ribosomal Database Project II Chimera Check was used (http://​wdcm.​nig.​ac.​jp/​RDP/​html/​analyses.​html) to discard any chimeric sequences. Phylogenetic EPZ015666 in vivo analyses were performed on a set of Pantoea sequences. Sequences of 16S rRNA genes from Pantoea isolates from mosquitoes were compared to all available sequences of Pantoea retrieved from GenBank that originated from other insect species and environments. Sequences were aligned using ClustalW then corrected manually using Bioedit software [33]. The

resulting O-methylated flavonoid alignment was used to construct a maximum-likelihood tree using Seaview v.4.2.12. (http://​pbil.​univ-lyon1.​fr/​software/​seaview.​html). The tree topology was tested by bootstrap analysis with 1,000 resamplings. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of bacterial genomes Undigested genomes of Pantoea isolates were analysed by PFGE according to published protocols with some modifications [26, 34]. Briefly, isolates were grown in 10 ml of LBm liquid medium for 18 h at 30°C. Cell cultures were centrifuged at 5,000 g for 20 min at 4°C. The pellet was resuspended in 1 ml of 1 × Tris-EDTA buffer to obtain an optical density between 1.8 and 2.0. Cell suspensions (0.5 ml) were mixed volume to volume with 1.6% low melting point agarose (Biorad) and the mixture was distributed per 0.1 ml in the plug molds (Biorad) and cooled at 4°C. Cells were lysed in lysis solution (2 × Tris NaCl EDTA, 10% sodium lauroyl sarcosinate, 1.4 mg ml-1 lysozyme) at 37°C for 24 h and proteins were digested with proteinase K (Euromedex) in 0.5 M EDTA pH.8 containing 1% N-lauryl-sarcosine at 37°C for 48 h.