A complement activation assay (CH50) and uptake experiments by THP-1 macrophage cells were used to assess in vitro the effectiveness of the PEG-LAA derivative of modifying the surface behavior of nanocarriers. Administered to rats or Swiss mice, respectively, the PEG(2000)-LAA-modified LNC and MLV showed plasma half-lives longer than the corresponding naked carriers.\n\nTo GSK1120212 nmr assess the ability of nanocarriers to specifically reach tumor sites, paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded LNC and MLV were administered subcutaneously to rats implanted with a 9L glioma. Animals treated with saline
or naked LNC and MLV underwent a quick expansion of tumor mass, up to a volume of 2000 mm(3) 25 days GM6001 ic50 after the injection of tumor cells. On the contrary, treatment with a PEG-LAA modified LNC carrier reduced the growth of the tumor volume, which did not exceed 1000 mm(3) by day 25. Analogous positive results were obtained with the liposomal systems. The experimental findings confirmed that these new PEG-LAA conjugates allow to obtain sterically stable nanocarriers that behave effectively and in a comparable or even better way than the (phospho) lipid PEG derivatives commercially available. (C) 2012 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.”
“Interactions between individuals and the structure of their environment
play a crucial role in shaping self-organized collective behaviors. Recent studies have shown that ants crossing asymmetrical bifurcations in a network of galleries tend to follow the branch that deviates the least from their incoming direction. At the collective level, the combination of this tendency and the pheromone-based recruitment results in a greater likelihood of selecting the shortest path between the colony’s nest and a food source in a network containing asymmetrical bifurcations. It was not clear however what the origin of this behavioral bias is. Here we propose that it results from a simple interaction between the behavior
of the ants and https://www.selleckchem.com/products/elafibranor.html the geometry of the network, and that it does not require the ability to measure the angle of the bifurcation. We tested this hypothesis using groups of ant-like robots whose perceptual and cognitive abilities can be fully specified. We programmed them only to lay down and follow light trails, avoid obstacles and move according to a correlated random walk, but not to use more sophisticated orientation methods. We recorded the behavior of the robots in networks of galleries presenting either only symmetrical bifurcations or a combination of symmetrical and asymmetrical bifurcations. Individual robots displayed the same pattern of branch choice as individual ants when crossing a bifurcation, suggesting that ants do not actually measure the geometry of the bifurcations when travelling along a pheromone trail.