Karger AG, Basel”
“Endoplasmic reticulum stress is a central

Karger AG, Basel”
“Endoplasmic reticulum stress is a central feature of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. A polymorphism of the XBP1 gene (-116C/G), a transcription

factor that modulates the endoplasmic reticulum stress response, Causes an impairment of its positive feedback system. The authors examined a role of the polymorphism in the development of obesity. The polymorphism was investigated in clinically obese children and compared with controls. Significant difference of genotype distribution was observed, which suggested that the -116C/G genotype may be a risk factor for at least pediatric obesity.”
“Purpose: BMS-345541 price The objective of the present study was to provide evidence for the hypothesis of fibroblasts and the desmoplastic reaction, respectively, to impact the formation and maturation of the vascular Selleck TGF-beta inhibitor network in human colon tumours via a retrospective in situ study. An in vivo xenograft model was evaluated to verify its potential for fibroblast-related functional studies.


and methods: In situ: Fiftytwo G2/G3 colon tumours were histomorphologically categorised into low (<50%), medium (50-75%) and high (>75%) grade desmoplasia based on hematoxylin/eosin and Elastica van Gieson stained paraffin sections. Low and high grade desmoplastic tumours were identified and stained for endothelial and pericyte markers to morphometrically analyse microvessel count (MVC), vascular surface area (VSA) and vascular maturation status. In vivo: One out of three established subcutaneous xenograft model in NMRI (nu/nu) mice was adapted to monitor the

impact of primary human fibroblasts on xenograft formation and morphology.

Results: Vascular structures in human colon tumours are predominantly located in the fibroblastic stromal regions. Highly desmoplastic tumours, however, have significantly lower MVC and VSA values Selleck GDC-0068 at the invasion front with signs for augmented vascular maturation as compared with low grade desmoplastic colon cancers. Our in vivo approach verified that only high proportions of co-injected normal fibroblasts accelerate xenograft formation of HCT-116 colon cancer cells.

Conclusions: The in situ data clearly support the hypothesis of fibroblasts to contribute to vascular maturation phenomena in colon cancers. The in vivo design of only 500 tumour cells co-injected with normal fibroblast is feasible, results in 100% engraftment and is the basis for further developments.”
“Objectives: It remains controversial whether we can apply similar principles in the management of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUT-UC) based on the behavior of bladder urothelial carcinoma (B-UC). We sought to assess whether UUT-UC and B-UC have similar biology and performed a stage-by-stage comparative analysis of outcome between the 2 groups. Methods: A retrospective review was performed on patients who underwent nephroureterectomy for UUT-UC and radical cystectomy for B-UC from 1991 to 2006.

5 degrees C, was obtained near the phase-transition temperature

5 degrees C, was obtained near the phase-transition temperature. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3641983]“
“Aims: Diffuse and extensive involvement of the scalp/skull by malignancy mandates holo-cranial radiotherapy with the aim to deliver homogeneous doses to the planning target volume (PTV) while minimising the dose to surrounding organs at risk

(OARs). Previously described techniques result in significant heterogeneity, suboptimal coverage or poor conformity and need complicated beam matching. Here we report our preliminary experience of planning and delivery of brain-sparing holo-cranial radiotherapy with helical tomotherapy.

Materials and methods: Three patients with extensive involvement of the scalp/skull by malignancy were planned and treated with image-guided intensity-modulated radiation selleck kinase inhibitor therapy on helical tomotherapy. The plan evaluation was carried out using standardised dose metrics.

Results: Helical tomotherapy achieved highly conformal and homogeneous dose distributions with substantial OAR sparing Lazertinib molecular weight in all three patients. The volume of PTV receiving >= 95% of prescribed dose (V(95%)) was >= 98% in all three patients. The mean (standard

deviation) homogeneity index and conformity index was 0.046 (0.006) and 0.783 (0.035), respectively. The mean dose to the brain parenchyma outside the PTV was 17.32 Gy (74%), 28.76 Gy (63.9%) and 26.7 Gy (59.3%) for the three patients. www.selleckchem.com/products/MLN-2238.html The mean (standard deviation) monitor units and beam-on time was 6939 (985) and 8.10 (1.137) min, respectively. Overall the treatment was very well tolerated with no significant acute toxicity. Early follow-up evaluation revealed a good clinicoradiological response and the absence of local disease progression with no significant sequelae, implying successful application of the treatment paradigm.

Conclusion: Helical

tomotherapy is ideally suited for brain-sparing holo-cranial radiotherapy with its exceptional ability of tangential beam delivery resulting in highly conformal and homogenous dose distribution across large, complex target volumes with substantial OAR sparing. (C) 2010 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of this study was to evaluate stress responses evoked by 2 alternative methods for performing the following processing procedures: 1) teeth resection-clipping vs. grinding; 2) tail docking cold vs. hot clipping; 3) identification-ear notch vs. tag; 4) iron administration-injection vs. oral; 5) castration-cords cut vs. torn. Eight to 10 litters of 8-, 2-, and 3-d-old piglets were assigned to each procedure. Within each litter, 2 piglets were assigned to 1 of 4 possible procedures: the 2 alternative methods, a sham procedure, and a sham procedure plus blood sampling.

The first set contained 359 dogs upon which a predictive formula

The first set contained 359 dogs upon which a predictive formula for genomic breeding value (GBV) was derived by using their estimated breeding value (EBV) of the ABT 263 Norberg angle (a measure of CHD) and their genotypes. To investigate how well the formula would work for an individual dog with genotype only (without using EBV), a cross validation was performed by masking the EBV of one dog at a time. The genomic data and the EBV of the remaining dogs were used to predict the GBV for the single dog that was left out. The second set of dogs included 38 new Labrador retriever dogs, which had no pedigree relationship

to the dogs in the first set.

Results: The cross validation showed a strong correlation (R > 0.7) between the EBV and the GBV. The independent validation showed a moderate correlation (R = 0.5) between GBV for the Norberg angle and the observed Norberg angle (no EBV was available for the new 38 dogs). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the genomic data were all above 70%.

Conclusions: Prediction of CHD from genomic

data is feasible, and can be applied for risk management of CHD and early selection for genetic improvement to reduce the prevalence of CHD in breeding programs. The prediction can be implemented before maturity, at which age current radiographic screening programs are traditionally applied, and as soon as DNA is available. (C) 2010 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Pregabalin https://www.selleckchem.com/products/BI6727-Volasertib.html (Lyrica) is a structural analog of -aminobutyric acid (GABA) and is approved by the FDA for partial epilepsy, neuropathic pain and generalized Captisol ic50 anxiety disorders. Pregabalin also reduces excitatory neurotransmitter release and post-synaptic excitability. Recently, we demonstrated that pregabalin reduced alcohol intake and prevented relapse to the alcohol seeking elicited by stress or environmental stimuli associated with alcohol availability. Here, we

sought to extend these findings by examining the effect of pregabalin on cocaine self-administration (0.25mg/infusion) and on cocaine seeking elicited by both conditioned stimuli and stress, as generated by administration of yohimbine (1.25mg/kg). The results showed that oral administration of pregabalin (0, 10 or 30mg/kg) reduced self-administration of cocaine over an extended period (6 hours), whereas it did not modify self-administration of food. In cocaine reinstatement studies, pregabalin (10 and 30mg/kg) abolished the cocaine seeking elicited by both the pharmacological stressor yohimbine and the cues predictive of cocaine availability. Overall, these results demonstrate that pregabalin may have potential in the treatment of some aspects of cocaine addiction.”
“Endotracheal tube intra-cuff pressure should be maintained between 20 and 30 cmH(2)O to prevent damage to the tracheal wall.

After adjusting for age, in women there were no associations betw

After adjusting for age, in women there were no associations between POP levels and social

class or education. After adjusting for age and BMI, men in the less affluent class had higher p,p’-DDE concentrations than men in class I (p-value = 0.016), while men in class JQ-EZ-05 IV had lower HCB than men in the upper class (p-value < 0.03). Also in contrast with some expectations, positive associations between education and POP levels were observed after adjusting for age and BMI in men; e.g., men with university studies had higher HCB concentrations than men with first stage of primary schooling (adjusted GM 153.9 and 80.5 ng/g, respectively) (p-value < 0.001). When education and social class were co-adjusted for, some positive associations with education in men remained statistically significant, whereas class remained associated only with p,p’-DDE. Educational level influenced blood concentrations of POPs more than occupational social class, especially in men. In women, POP concentrations were mainly explained by age/birth cohort, parity and BMI. In

men, while concentrations were also mainly explained by age/birth cohort and ASP2215 BMI, both social class and education showed positive associations. Important characteristics of socioeconomic groups as age and BMI may largely explain crude differences among such groups in internal contamination by POPs. The absence of clear BMS-754807 ic50 patterns of relationships between blood concentrations of POPs and indicators of socioeconomic position may fundamentally

be due to the widespread, lifelong, and generally invisible contamination of human food webs. Decreasing historical trends would also partly explain crude socioeconomic differences apparently due to birth cohort effects. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The effect of different preparations on the functional properties of peanut protein concentrates was studied. Peanut protein concentrates were isolated from defatted peanut flour by isoelectric precipitation, alcohol precipitation, isoelectric precipitation combined with alcohol precipitation, alkali solution with isoelectric precipitation and their functional properties (protein solubility, water holding/oil binding capacity, emulsifying capacity and stability, foaming capacity and rheology) were evaluated. The results showed that the protein solubility, foaming capacity and stability of protein prepared by alkali solution with isoelectric precipitation were the best of all the peanut protein products. But the protein prepared by alcohol precipitation had better water holding/oil binding capacity, which was significantly different from other protein products. The emulsifying stability of protein concentrate prepared by different methods was significantly lower than that of defatted protein flour.

“Using vibrational imaging techniques including Fourier-tr

“Using vibrational imaging techniques including Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) synchrotron microscopy, Raman microscopy, and scattering scanning near-field infrared microcscopy (s-SNIM), we mapped a sample of phosphor and copper ions implanted in a high-purity silicon wafer. While Raman microscopy monitors the structural disorder Compound Library within the implantation fields, the

aforementionedinfrared techniques provide a detailed picture of the distribution of the free carriers. On a large scale (tens of micrometers), we visualized the channeling effects of phosphor dopants in silicon using FTIR microscopy. In comparison, using s-SNIM we were able to image, on a nanometer scale, local variations of the dielectric properties of the silicon substrate due to the activation of copper dopants. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3606415]“
“Eosinophilic buy Napabucasin Esophagitis (EoE), first described in the early 1990′s, has rapidly evolved as distinctive chronic inflammatory

esophageal disease. The diagnosis is based clinically by the presence of symptoms related to an esophageal dysfunction and histologically by an eosinophil-predominant inflammation once other conditions leading to esophageal eosinophilia are excluded. This striking male-prevalent disease has an increasing incidence and prevalence in the westernised countries. Currently, EoE represents the main cause of dysphagia and bolus impaction in adult patients. Despite the fact that EoE often occurs in atopic patients, the value of allergic testing is still under discussion. Topical corticosteroids lead to a rapid improvement of active EoE clinically and histologically; they are therefore regarded as first-line drug therapy. Elimination diets have similar efficacy as topical corticosteroids, but their long-term use is limited by practical issues. Esophageal dilation of EoE-induced strictures can also Mizoribine be effective in improving symptoms, but this therapy has no effect on the underlying inflammation.

Neither the diagnostic nor the long-term therapeutic strategies are yet fully defined.”
“The modulation of primary nitrogen metabolism by water deficit through ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways was investigated in the model legume Medicago truncatula. Growth and glutamate metabolism were followed in young seedlings growing for short periods in darkness and submitted to a moderate water deficit (simulated by polyethylene glycol; PEG) or treated with ABA. Water deficit induced an ABA accumulation, a reduction of axis length in an ABA-dependent manner, and an inhibition of water uptake/retention in an ABA-independent manner. The PEG-induced accumulation of free amino acids (AA), principally asparagine and proline, was mimicked by exogenous ABA treatment.

I close with a brief summary and conclusion “
“The aim of th

I close with a brief summary and conclusion.”
“The aim of the present study was to describe the current situation of donation after circulatory death (DCD) in the Council of Europe, through

a dedicated survey. this website Of 27 participating countries, only 10 confirmed any DCD activity, the highest one being described in Belgium, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (mainly controlled) and France and Spain (mainly uncontrolled). During 2000-2009, as DCD increased, donation after brain death (DBD) decreased about 20% in the three countries with a predominant controlled DCD activity, while DBD had increased in the majority of European countries. The number of organs recovered and transplanted per DCD increased along time,

although it remained substantially lower compared with DBD. During 2000-2008, 5004 organs were transplanted from DCD (4261 kidneys, 505 livers, 157 lungs and 81 pancreas). Short-term outcomes of 2343 selleck compound kidney recipients from controlled versus 649 from uncontrolled DCD were analyzed: primary non function occurred in 5% vs. 6.4% (P = NS) and delayed graft function in 50.2% vs. 75.7% (P < 0.001). In spite of this, 1 year graft survival was 85.9% vs. 88.9% (P = 0.04), respectively. DCD is increasingly accepted in Europe but still limited to a few countries. Controlled DCD might negatively impact DBD activity. The degree of utilization of DCD is lower compared with DBD. Short-term results of DCD are promising with differences between kidney recipients transplanted from controlled versus uncontrolled DCD, an observation to be further analyzed.”
“Background: Aortic root replacement is a complex

operation for severe aortic root pathology such as aneurysms and dissections with learn more concomitant aortic valve disease. Biological and mechanical valve conduits are available.

Methods: Early and midterm results were analyzed in patients undergoing aortic root replacement. From January 1, 1998, to May 31, 2007, 144 patients underwent aortic root replacement (Bentall procedures) with either a mechanical (n = 51) or a biological (n = 93) valve conduit. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to determine whether valve type was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality, and analysis of covariance was used to compare general and disease-specific health-related quality-of-life scores.

Results: Operative mortality was 2.1%. Median follow-up time was 40 months; 1- and 5-year survival rates for the mechanical group were 96.0% and 89.0%, respectively, vs 93.0% and 84.0% for the biological group. Valve type was not predictive of all-cause mortality, and valve-related complications were not significantly different between groups. At follow-up, 31.5% of patients in the biological group were on anticoagulant.

The QSAR studies have been carried out using topological paramete

The QSAR studies have been carried out using topological parameters along with thermodynamic and structural descriptors. Acceptable MK-2206 values of internal and external validation parameters for the developed QSAR models confirm acceptability of the models. Pharmacophore mapping revealed that two hydrogen bond donor (HBD) features and a hydrophobic feature (HYD) are important parameters for PfDHFR-TS inhibitory activity. The docking studies suggest that the PfDHFR-TS inhibitors interact with Asp54, Ile14, Ile164, ser108, Ser111, Tyr170, Met55, Ala16, Thr185, Leu46, Cys15, Phe58, Ile112, Trp48, Tyr57 and Leu119 amino acid residues.

The QSAR, pharmacophore and docking studies inferred that i) branching of the substituents at R1 and R2 positions should be less (small alkyl chain substituents are favored); ii) the electronegativity of the molecules should be high but within some limit; iii) the size and volume of the molecules should be high; iv) molecules should be flexible enough; v) R configuration

at C6 position of the triazine ring favors the inhibitory binding affinity; vi) the substituents of the phenyl ring at 3, 4 and 5 position of the phenyl ring should be small hydrophobic groups. Based on these studies, we have designed a library of cycloguanil derivatives with good in silico Screening Library manufacturer predicted PfDHFR-TS inhibitory activity.”
“As furfural (F) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are essentially formed from sugar dehydration, especially in food submitted to heat, they can be found in beverages, as well as fortified sweet wines. In order to assess the impact of temperature on Madeira winemaking, three traditional varieties of Madeira wines (Malvasia. Sercial and Tinta Negro Mole) were studied to evaluate the F and HMF contents. The wines were produced LY3023414 by two vinification processes, following traditional and modern methodologies, heated at standard conditions (30 degrees C and 45 degrees C, for 4 months) and compared with the same wines submitted to overheating conditions (55 degrees C, for 4 months). The RP-HPLC-DAD methodology used for the

control of F and HMF during the process showed no significant changes in the wines maintained at 30 degrees C (canteiro) and a noticeable but controlled increase in the wines heated at 45 degrees C (estufagem) where values up to about 150 mg/L of HMF could be found in sweet wines. The strong relation of this compound with the sugar content and baking temperature stood out in the wines submitted to overheating conditions where values higher than 1 g/L could be found for sweeter wines, with HMF level being in general higher than F.

The results clearly suggest that the amount of HMF in these fortified wines can be easily controlled when submitted to adequate conditions of heating during estufagem and storage.

Acute rejection occurring during the first 3 months after transpl

Acute rejection occurring during the first 3 months after transplantation was more frequent in the ATG group (52.4% vs. 25%). Moreover, late acute rejection episodes occurred in all recipients in whom weaning was attempted and no recipients reached the check details primary end-point. This motivated the premature termination of the trial. Tacrolimus trough levels were lower in the ATG-Fresenius group but no benefits in terms

of improved renal function, lower metabolic complications or increased prevalence of tolerance-related biomarkers were observed. In conclusion, the use of ATG-Fresenius and tacrolimus at gradually decreasing doses was associated with a high rate of rejection, did not allow for the administration of very low doses of tacrolimus and failed to provide detectable clinical benefits. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier:NCT00436722.”
“Homogeneous distribution of magnetic dopants in semiconductor hosts is highly desired for practical applications in spintronics. Herein, we show that codoping 2 at. % Cu with Zn0.98Co0.020 could change the magnetic behavior from paramagnetism to room temperature ferromagnetism. For Zn0.96Cu0.02Co0.02O nanocrystals prepared by a modified solid-state reaction method, the combination of x-ray

absorption fine structure spectra at Co, Cu, and O K-edge reveals that the Cu and Co ions are substitutionally incorporated into the ZnO matrix and distribute randomly in the host. First-principles Small molecule library calculations further indicate strong hybridization between Co 3d states and Cu-induced donor impurity bands at the Fermi level, which effectively enhances the indirect ferromagnetic superexchange of Co ions and is responsible for the occurrence of ferromagnetism in (Co,Cu)-codoped ZnO. (C) 2011

American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3583667]“
“Any VS-4718 clinical trial use of alcohol in the years following liver transplantation (LTX) approaches 50% of patients transplanted for alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We collected detailed prospective data on alcohol consumption following LTX for ALD to investigate ongoing patterns of use. Using trajectory modeling we identified four distinct alcohol use trajectories. One group had minimal use over time. Two other groups developed early onset moderate-to-heavy consumption and one group developed late onset moderate use. These trajectories demonstrate that alcohol use varies based on timing of onset, quantity and duration. Using discriminant function analysis, we examine characteristics of recipient’s pre-LTX alcohol histories and early post-LTX psychological stressors to identify the profile of those at risk for these specific trajectories. We discuss the relevance of these findings to clinical care and preliminarily to outcomes.”
“Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to evaluate temperature-dependent thermal conductivity of bent carbon nanotubes.

Results: BMI-stratified multivariate analysis revealed significan

Results: BMI-stratified multivariate analysis revealed significantly higher ucOC levels in PCOS vs. controls in lean (p = 0.001) but not overweight and obese study participants (p = 0.456). Notably, a positive correlation this website between ucOC and TT (p = 0.018), calculated free testosterone (cFT, p = 0.028) and serum insulin (p = 0.036), respectively, was found to be confined to the lean analysis subgroup. Furthermore, in stepwise multiple

regression models, beta-CrossLaps and cFT were able to predict 46.71% of serum ucOC variability. (1-43/49) OC failed to be significantly associated to any PCOS trait.

Conclusions: Circulating ucOC concentration is related to key endocrine PCOS characteristics in a weight-dependent manner. Within the bone-pancreas loop, high ucOC may favor insulin release in lean hyperandrogenic women to compensate for impaired insulin sensitivity.”
“Methods To minimize reverse causality, a genetic score predicting testosterone was developed in 289 young Chinese men from Hong Kong, based on three selected testosterone-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs10046, rs1008805 and rs1256031). Multivariable censored and linear regressions

were used to examine AZD6094 datasheet the association of genetically predicted testosterone levels with CVD risk factors and Framingham score among 4212 older Chinese men from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.

Results Predicted testosterone was unrelated to systolic blood pressure [-0.11 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.70 to 0.48], diastolic blood pressure (0.04 mmHg, 95% CI -0.27 to 0.36), fasting glucose (0.02 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.06) or Framingham score (0.02, 95% CI -0.0001 to 0.03) but associated with higher LDL-cholesterol (0.02 mmol/l, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.04) and lower HDL-cholesterol (-0.01 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.02 to -0.001), after adjustment for potential confounders JQ1 manufacturer (age, education, smoking status, use of alcohol and body mass index).

Conclusions Our findings did not corroborate

observed protective effects of testosterone on cardiovascular risk factors or risk of ischaemic heart disease among men, but raises the possibility that higher testosterone may be associated with an unhealthier lipid profile.”
“A dual-specific, tetravalent immunoglobulin G-like molecule, termed dual variable domain immunoglobulin (DVD-Ig), is engineered to block two targets. Flexibility modulates Fc receptor and complement binding, but could result in undesirable cross-linking of surface antigens and downstream signaling. Understanding the flexibility of parental mAbs is important for designing and retaining functionality of DVD-Ig molecules. The architecture and dynamics of a DVD-Ig molecule and its parental mAbs was examined using single particle electron microscopy.

J Appl Polym Sci 121: 541-553, 2011″
“Background: Multiple s

J Appl Polym Sci 121: 541-553, 2011″
“Background: Multiple studies have shown excellent response rates after hepatitis B immunization in youth; however, one previous study conducted in urban youth demonstrated poor responses.

Methods: Urban youth, ages 12 to 17 years, at participating Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions Clinical/Research sites were randomized to receive either 2 doses of Recombivax

HB (10 mu g hepatitis B surface antigen) or Twinrix (20 mu g hepatitis B surface antigen and 720 EL.U hepatitis A antigen) at 0 and 24 weeks. Safety data were collected and antibody measures performed at 0, 28, and 76 weeks.

Results: A total of 123 subjects were enrolled and 102 had week 28 serum samples available for antibody measure. A positive response Selleckchem CAL 101 (serum antibody >= 10 mIU/mL) to hepatitis B antigen was documented in

41 of 47 (87.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 74.3%-95.2%) Recombivax HB recipients and in 52 of 55 (94.6%; 95% CI, 84.9%-98.9%) Twinrix recipients (P = 0.295). In an adjusted analysis, those identified as Hispanic ethnicity (N = 86) were more likely to have a positive response (odds ratio 7.38, 95% CI, 1.56-34.95; P = 0.0018); whereas those who identified as not heterosexual (N = 9) were less likely to selleckchem respond (odds ratio = 0.12, 95% CI, 0.02-0.74). The majority of youth in the Twinrix arm were hepatitis A antibody positive at baseline (26/51; 51%); however, 24 of 25 hepatitis A antibody negative youth responded to the hepatitis

A component. Both vaccines were safe.

Conclusions: Response rate to 2 doses of Recombivax HB in urban youth is lower than previous studies suggest. The factors associated with diminished response are not known.”
“The initial stages of graphitization on 4H- and 6H-SiC (000-1) under ultrahigh vacuum at temperatures of 1125-1175 degrees C have been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and reflected high energy electron Dihydrotestosterone molecular weight diffraction. A progressive coverage of the surface by graphene has been observed depending on the time and temperature of annealing. Graphene growth mainly starts from the step edges, although it sometimes nucleates in the middle of a SiC terrace. Comparison of the topographic and phase AFM images shows that the latter are the most efficient for identifying graphene before complete coverage of the surface. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3560896]“
“Polymethacrylamide intercalated hectorite clay nanocomposites were synthesized by the in situ free-radical polymerization method. The interlayer cation of hectorite clay was modified with cetyl pyridinium chloride and cetrimide, and their effects on the rate of polymerization of methacrylamide and the structure-property relationships of the resulting polymer nanocomposites were investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed a peak around 550 cm(-1) that was due to the metal oxide stretching of hectorite clay in the polymer nanocomposites.