The QSAR studies have been carried out using topological paramete

The QSAR studies have been carried out using topological parameters along with thermodynamic and structural descriptors. Acceptable MK-2206 values of internal and external validation parameters for the developed QSAR models confirm acceptability of the models. Pharmacophore mapping revealed that two hydrogen bond donor (HBD) features and a hydrophobic feature (HYD) are important parameters for PfDHFR-TS inhibitory activity. The docking studies suggest that the PfDHFR-TS inhibitors interact with Asp54, Ile14, Ile164, ser108, Ser111, Tyr170, Met55, Ala16, Thr185, Leu46, Cys15, Phe58, Ile112, Trp48, Tyr57 and Leu119 amino acid residues.

The QSAR, pharmacophore and docking studies inferred that i) branching of the substituents at R1 and R2 positions should be less (small alkyl chain substituents are favored); ii) the electronegativity of the molecules should be high but within some limit; iii) the size and volume of the molecules should be high; iv) molecules should be flexible enough; v) R configuration

at C6 position of the triazine ring favors the inhibitory binding affinity; vi) the substituents of the phenyl ring at 3, 4 and 5 position of the phenyl ring should be small hydrophobic groups. Based on these studies, we have designed a library of cycloguanil derivatives with good in silico Screening Library manufacturer predicted PfDHFR-TS inhibitory activity.”
“As furfural (F) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are essentially formed from sugar dehydration, especially in food submitted to heat, they can be found in beverages, as well as fortified sweet wines. In order to assess the impact of temperature on Madeira winemaking, three traditional varieties of Madeira wines (Malvasia. Sercial and Tinta Negro Mole) were studied to evaluate the F and HMF contents. The wines were produced LY3023414 by two vinification processes, following traditional and modern methodologies, heated at standard conditions (30 degrees C and 45 degrees C, for 4 months) and compared with the same wines submitted to overheating conditions (55 degrees C, for 4 months). The RP-HPLC-DAD methodology used for the

control of F and HMF during the process showed no significant changes in the wines maintained at 30 degrees C (canteiro) and a noticeable but controlled increase in the wines heated at 45 degrees C (estufagem) where values up to about 150 mg/L of HMF could be found in sweet wines. The strong relation of this compound with the sugar content and baking temperature stood out in the wines submitted to overheating conditions where values higher than 1 g/L could be found for sweeter wines, with HMF level being in general higher than F.

The results clearly suggest that the amount of HMF in these fortified wines can be easily controlled when submitted to adequate conditions of heating during estufagem and storage.

Acute rejection occurring during the first 3 months after transpl

Acute rejection occurring during the first 3 months after transplantation was more frequent in the ATG group (52.4% vs. 25%). Moreover, late acute rejection episodes occurred in all recipients in whom weaning was attempted and no recipients reached the check details primary end-point. This motivated the premature termination of the trial. Tacrolimus trough levels were lower in the ATG-Fresenius group but no benefits in terms

of improved renal function, lower metabolic complications or increased prevalence of tolerance-related biomarkers were observed. In conclusion, the use of ATG-Fresenius and tacrolimus at gradually decreasing doses was associated with a high rate of rejection, did not allow for the administration of very low doses of tacrolimus and failed to provide detectable clinical benefits. identifier:NCT00436722.”
“Homogeneous distribution of magnetic dopants in semiconductor hosts is highly desired for practical applications in spintronics. Herein, we show that codoping 2 at. % Cu with Zn0.98Co0.020 could change the magnetic behavior from paramagnetism to room temperature ferromagnetism. For Zn0.96Cu0.02Co0.02O nanocrystals prepared by a modified solid-state reaction method, the combination of x-ray

absorption fine structure spectra at Co, Cu, and O K-edge reveals that the Cu and Co ions are substitutionally incorporated into the ZnO matrix and distribute randomly in the host. First-principles Small molecule library calculations further indicate strong hybridization between Co 3d states and Cu-induced donor impurity bands at the Fermi level, which effectively enhances the indirect ferromagnetic superexchange of Co ions and is responsible for the occurrence of ferromagnetism in (Co,Cu)-codoped ZnO. (C) 2011

American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3583667]“
“Any VS-4718 clinical trial use of alcohol in the years following liver transplantation (LTX) approaches 50% of patients transplanted for alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We collected detailed prospective data on alcohol consumption following LTX for ALD to investigate ongoing patterns of use. Using trajectory modeling we identified four distinct alcohol use trajectories. One group had minimal use over time. Two other groups developed early onset moderate-to-heavy consumption and one group developed late onset moderate use. These trajectories demonstrate that alcohol use varies based on timing of onset, quantity and duration. Using discriminant function analysis, we examine characteristics of recipient’s pre-LTX alcohol histories and early post-LTX psychological stressors to identify the profile of those at risk for these specific trajectories. We discuss the relevance of these findings to clinical care and preliminarily to outcomes.”
“Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to evaluate temperature-dependent thermal conductivity of bent carbon nanotubes.

Results: BMI-stratified multivariate analysis revealed significan

Results: BMI-stratified multivariate analysis revealed significantly higher ucOC levels in PCOS vs. controls in lean (p = 0.001) but not overweight and obese study participants (p = 0.456). Notably, a positive correlation this website between ucOC and TT (p = 0.018), calculated free testosterone (cFT, p = 0.028) and serum insulin (p = 0.036), respectively, was found to be confined to the lean analysis subgroup. Furthermore, in stepwise multiple

regression models, beta-CrossLaps and cFT were able to predict 46.71% of serum ucOC variability. (1-43/49) OC failed to be significantly associated to any PCOS trait.

Conclusions: Circulating ucOC concentration is related to key endocrine PCOS characteristics in a weight-dependent manner. Within the bone-pancreas loop, high ucOC may favor insulin release in lean hyperandrogenic women to compensate for impaired insulin sensitivity.”
“Methods To minimize reverse causality, a genetic score predicting testosterone was developed in 289 young Chinese men from Hong Kong, based on three selected testosterone-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs10046, rs1008805 and rs1256031). Multivariable censored and linear regressions

were used to examine AZD6094 datasheet the association of genetically predicted testosterone levels with CVD risk factors and Framingham score among 4212 older Chinese men from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.

Results Predicted testosterone was unrelated to systolic blood pressure [-0.11 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.70 to 0.48], diastolic blood pressure (0.04 mmHg, 95% CI -0.27 to 0.36), fasting glucose (0.02 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.06) or Framingham score (0.02, 95% CI -0.0001 to 0.03) but associated with higher LDL-cholesterol (0.02 mmol/l, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.04) and lower HDL-cholesterol (-0.01 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.02 to -0.001), after adjustment for potential confounders JQ1 manufacturer (age, education, smoking status, use of alcohol and body mass index).

Conclusions Our findings did not corroborate

observed protective effects of testosterone on cardiovascular risk factors or risk of ischaemic heart disease among men, but raises the possibility that higher testosterone may be associated with an unhealthier lipid profile.”
“A dual-specific, tetravalent immunoglobulin G-like molecule, termed dual variable domain immunoglobulin (DVD-Ig), is engineered to block two targets. Flexibility modulates Fc receptor and complement binding, but could result in undesirable cross-linking of surface antigens and downstream signaling. Understanding the flexibility of parental mAbs is important for designing and retaining functionality of DVD-Ig molecules. The architecture and dynamics of a DVD-Ig molecule and its parental mAbs was examined using single particle electron microscopy.

J Appl Polym Sci 121: 541-553, 2011″
“Background: Multiple s

J Appl Polym Sci 121: 541-553, 2011″
“Background: Multiple studies have shown excellent response rates after hepatitis B immunization in youth; however, one previous study conducted in urban youth demonstrated poor responses.

Methods: Urban youth, ages 12 to 17 years, at participating Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions Clinical/Research sites were randomized to receive either 2 doses of Recombivax

HB (10 mu g hepatitis B surface antigen) or Twinrix (20 mu g hepatitis B surface antigen and 720 EL.U hepatitis A antigen) at 0 and 24 weeks. Safety data were collected and antibody measures performed at 0, 28, and 76 weeks.

Results: A total of 123 subjects were enrolled and 102 had week 28 serum samples available for antibody measure. A positive response Selleckchem CAL 101 (serum antibody >= 10 mIU/mL) to hepatitis B antigen was documented in

41 of 47 (87.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 74.3%-95.2%) Recombivax HB recipients and in 52 of 55 (94.6%; 95% CI, 84.9%-98.9%) Twinrix recipients (P = 0.295). In an adjusted analysis, those identified as Hispanic ethnicity (N = 86) were more likely to have a positive response (odds ratio 7.38, 95% CI, 1.56-34.95; P = 0.0018); whereas those who identified as not heterosexual (N = 9) were less likely to selleckchem respond (odds ratio = 0.12, 95% CI, 0.02-0.74). The majority of youth in the Twinrix arm were hepatitis A antibody positive at baseline (26/51; 51%); however, 24 of 25 hepatitis A antibody negative youth responded to the hepatitis

A component. Both vaccines were safe.

Conclusions: Response rate to 2 doses of Recombivax HB in urban youth is lower than previous studies suggest. The factors associated with diminished response are not known.”
“The initial stages of graphitization on 4H- and 6H-SiC (000-1) under ultrahigh vacuum at temperatures of 1125-1175 degrees C have been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and reflected high energy electron Dihydrotestosterone molecular weight diffraction. A progressive coverage of the surface by graphene has been observed depending on the time and temperature of annealing. Graphene growth mainly starts from the step edges, although it sometimes nucleates in the middle of a SiC terrace. Comparison of the topographic and phase AFM images shows that the latter are the most efficient for identifying graphene before complete coverage of the surface. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3560896]“
“Polymethacrylamide intercalated hectorite clay nanocomposites were synthesized by the in situ free-radical polymerization method. The interlayer cation of hectorite clay was modified with cetyl pyridinium chloride and cetrimide, and their effects on the rate of polymerization of methacrylamide and the structure-property relationships of the resulting polymer nanocomposites were investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed a peak around 550 cm(-1) that was due to the metal oxide stretching of hectorite clay in the polymer nanocomposites.

Percentage change in plasma

Percentage change in plasma GDC-0973 inhibitor creatinine was significantly and inversely related to the oxygen delivery during CPB. There was no difference in percentage change in plasma creatinine between groups. The risk of having Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) score >= 1 increased 1% for every 1 ml min(-1) m(-2) decrease in oxygen delivery (P = 0.0001, OR 0.990, 95% CI 0.984-0.995).

Despite aiming for the same target pump flow, periodic limitations of venous return to the pump resulted in a significant reduction in average flow delivered to the patient by Mini-CPB. Less haemodilution compensated for this reduction, so that the average

oxygen delivery was the same. The association between oxygen delivery and postoperative change in plasma creatinine was evident in both groups. Further work to understand whether

there is a particular cohort of patients who benefit (or are put at risk) by one method of CPB vs the other is warranted.”
“Concerning individual neuromuscular conditions, selleck inhibitor electron microscopy may be considered “”essential,”" “” helpful,”" or “”wasteful.”" “”Essential”" electron microscopy should provide a clear diagnosis, because of the disease specificity of the ultrastructural findings, in particular as to inclusions within muscle fibers, such as cylindrical spirals and reducing bodies. Electron microscopy may be “”helpful”" in detecting ultrastructural features preceding typical light microscopic

findings, for instance, undulating tubules in endothelial cells. Congenital, metabolic, and inflammatory myopathies may often be more easily and more reliably diagnosed by means of the electron microscope. Diagnostically “”wasteful”" electron microscopy may pertain to muscular dystrophies, neurogenic atrophy, and myotonic diseases.”
“In the present paper, the bacterial communities in two soils, one from an agricultural sugarcane cropped field and the other from an unperturbed soil with similar geopedological characteristics, were characterized check details using the Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) method. FISH consists of in situ identification of bacteria using fluorescent labeled 16S rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes visualizable under epifluorescence microscope. In the cultivated soil, in line with agricultural practice, the pre-emergence herbicide atrazine had been regularly applied each year at a concentration of 5 L/ha. The Shannon Diversity and Evenness Indices were also calculated using the phylogenetic data obtained from the FISH analysis. Although, at the sampling time (6 months after soil atrazine treatment), no residual herbicide concentration was found, the overall bacterial community results show a lower diversity and evenness in the agricultural soil than in the unperturbed one, demonstrating how microbiological indicators are sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance.

Positive diagnostic studies included 1 MRI consistent with congen

Positive diagnostic studies included 1 MRI consistent with congenital CMV, and one CT that showed an EVA. 15/20 patients received systemic steroids, 3 received antivirals, and 4 got antibiotics. Response to steroids varied from complete resolution of SSNHL to worsening. Symptoms reported, in addition to the hearing loss included tinnitus (n = 9), vertigo (n = 9), sensation of a blocked ear (n = 6), and otalgia (n = 4).

Conclusions: The Selleck GSI-IX incidence of SSNHL in pediatric patients is unknown. Etiologies of SSNHL include viral, EVA, ototoxicity, noise, and non-organic. Most studies were non-diagnostic although 2/22 CT/MRI provided an etiology. Identification

of other causes required careful history review. The incidence of SSNHL in the pediatric population needs Selleckchem Alvocidib to be studied, and the timing, dosage, route and efficacy of steroids further evaluated. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae CWY132 was isolated, producing 1.393 g L-1 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) in a batch process containing 5 g L-1 L-phenylalanine (L-Phe), which is equivalent to an increase of 38.3% compared to the initial strain. In this study, biotransformation conditions of this strain were studied. We found glucose, KH2PO4, (NH4)2SO4, and amounts of inoculum cells had significant effects on the

biotransformation process; in particular, the existence of (NH4)2SO4 in the medium strongly inhibited the yield of 2-PE, while an increase in the amount of inoculum had a positive correlation with the yield of 2-PE. The optimum condition

for production of 2-PE was obtained using the following uniform design: glucose 34.16 g L-1, yeast nitrogen base 0.17 g L-1, MgSO4 0.5 g L-1, KH2PO4 14.89 g L-1, (NH4)2SO4 0 g L-1, L-Phe 5 g L-1, and an inoculum amount of 1.6 x 107 cells/mL. With the optimised conditions, the yield of 2-PE was further increased to 3.52 g L-1 (an increase of 249.5%), which corresponds to a molar conversion rate of 95.19%.”
“We reported a 2-year-old boy with developmental delay, mild mental retardation, GW4869 and severe craniofacial malformation, including facial asymmetry with hypoplasia of the left zygoma, maxilla, and mandible, and left anophthalmia and anotia. A genome-wide screen revealed a 1.38 Mb duplication on chromosome 1q31.1, which was absent in his parents and 27 healthy controls. The duplication region contains two Refseq genes, PLA2G4A and C1 orf99, which have not been reported to be implicated in craniofacial malformation. Functional studies of these genes and additional clinical analysis are necessary to elucidate the pathogenesis of craniofacial malformation. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The water, ethanol and chloroform extracts of selected plants such as Adhatoda vasica (L.

FF area was calculated as the proportion of total area (% FF) and

FF area was calculated as the proportion of total area (% FF) and the number of FF (FF/cm(2)) in the whole histological specimen from each patient.

Results: The UIP group showed significantly higher % FF and FF/cm(2) than the fNSIP group. When UIP and fNSIP patients were analysed together, the group of patients who had died (death group) revealed significantly higher % FF and FF/cm(2) compared with the group of survivors, and the impairment of vital capacity and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide was correlated with % FF and FF/cm(2).


FF correlated with impaired pulmonary function and may be a useful parameter to predict prognosis in patients with UIP and fNSIP.”
“Hypocitraturia is a LY3039478 in vivo known risk factor for kidney stone formation. By forming soluble complexes

with calcium, citrate prevents crystal nucleation, aggregation and growth; therefore, the presence of citrate in the urine reduces the risk for calcium stone formation. Ingested citrate is rapidly metabolized, and plasma citrate PF-03084014 supplier levels vary little, so changes in filtered load do not significantly influence urinary citrate excretion. Changes in urinary citrate excretion are predominantly influenced by the rate of citrate absorption from the glomerular filtrate and metabolism by the proximal tubule cell. The former is mediated by the apical membrane cotransporter NaDC1, and the latter is mediated by both cytoplasmic and mitochondril metabolism. Acid-base status is the most important physiological determinant of urinary citrate excretion,

by modulating the activities of NaDC1 and cytoplasmic (ATP citrate lyase) and mitochondria! (m-aconitase) enzymes involved in citrate metabolism. Following an acid load, both the transport and metabolic processes are up-regulated leading to hypocitraturia; in contrast, an alkaline load increases citrate excretion, by regulating only the mitochondrial metabolic process.”
“Background and objective: To ensure the safety of bronchoscopic practice, the Japan Society for Respiratory Endoscopy conducted a national survey to investigate the current state of procedure for this technique.

Methods: A questionnaire survey about procedures carried out during the whole of the year Copanlisib price 2010 was mailed to 538 facilities accredited by the society.

Results: Responses were obtained from 511 facilities (95.0%). Rigid bronchoscopes were used in only 18.5% of the facilities, while mobile/thin bronchoscopes were used in >= 50%, and fluoroscopy systems were used in 99.8%. Biopsies were performed after discontinuation of therapy in patients receiving antiplatelet drugs and anticoagulants in 96.7% and 97.4% of the facilities, respectively. Atropine was administered for premedication in 67.5% of the facilities, a decrease from previous surveys. Intravenous sedation was given in 36.1% of the facilities. In 21.

HAE1, also known as PRO98498, is structurally similar to omalizum

HAE1, also known as PRO98498, is structurally similar to omalizumab (Xolair (R)), a humanized anti-IgE IgG1 marketed for the treatment of asthma,

but differs by 9 amino acid changes in the complementarity-determining region resulting in a 23-fold improvement in affinity. HAE2 is similar to HAE1, but its Fc region was altered to reduce binding to Fc. receptors. As expected given the decreased binding to Fc gamma receptors, systemic exposure to pre-formed HAE2:IgE complexes in mice was greater (six-fold) and distribution to the liver lower (four-fold) compared with HAE1:IgE complexes. In monkeys, systemic exposure to HAE1 was similar to that previously observed for omalizumab in this species, but required comparatively lower serum drug concentrations to suppress free IgE levels. HAE2 treatment resulted in greater exposure and greater increase A-1155463 molecular weight of total IgE, relative to HAE1, because of decreased clearance of HAE2:IgE complexes. Overall, these

data suggest that increased binding affinity to IgE may provide a more effective therapeutic for asthma patients, and that retaining Fc gamma R binding of YH25448 nmr the anti-IgE antibody is important for elimination of anti-IgE: IgE complexes.”
“Background: Obesity and early menarche have been associated with asthma. In this report, we assess the association of Repotrectinib asthma with BMI and with changes in BMI from childhood to early adulthood. In addition, we determine if, in girls, any observed association of asthma with menarche can be explained by BMI. Methods: In a large national birth cohort, the associations of asthma at age 7, 11,

16 and 33 years with BMI, and of, asthma at age 33 years with changes in BMI from age 7 to age 33 years was assessed using logistic and mixed effects models as appropriate. Associations of asthma with age of menarche in girls were similarly assessed with and without adjustment for BMI. Results: Information on asthma, BMI, onset of menarche and confounders at all assessments was available for 1968 girls and 2223 boys. Obesity was relatively uncommon (<2%) in childhood. Overweight (BMI 25+) girls had more asthma. Girls with early menarche were more likely to be overweight. At age 11 years, asthma was associated with early menarche (OR=1.70, 95% CI 1.17-2.47, after adjustment for BMI OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.10-2.34). Across all ages, asthma was significantly associated with BMI (OR=1.50, 95% CI 1.18-1.90) but not with early menarche (OR=1.24, 95% CI 0.95-1.63). Conclusion: Asthma is more common in overweight girls. Early menarche is more common in overweight girls but this does not explain its association with asthma at age 11 years. Early menarche is not a risk factor for asthma at age 33 years in this cohort.


Conclusions: This study adds to the knowledge on


Conclusions: This study adds to the knowledge on the long-term effects of laryngeal split on children through assessment of their HRQoL and PVRQoL. The study subjects’ lower PVOS scores and AP26113 findings of perceptual assessment point to the effect of cotton plasty on VRQoL and voice. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The link between oral infections

and adverse systemic conditions has attracted much attention in the research community. Several mechanisms have been proposed, including spread of the oral infection due to transient bacteremia resulting in bacterial colonization in extra-oral sites, systemic injury by free toxins of oral pathogens, and systemic inflammation caused by soluble antigens of oral pathogens. Mounting evidence supports a major role of the systemic spread of oral commensals and pathogens to distant body sites causing extra-oral infections and inflammation. We review here the most recent findings on systemic infections and inflammation complicated by oral bacteria, including cardiovascular disease, adverse pregnancy selleck compound outcomes, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer, respiratory tract infections, and organ inflammations and abscesses. The recently identified virulence mechanisms of oral species Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Campylobacter rectus are also

reviewed. A pattern emerges indicating that only select subtype(s) of a given species, e. g., F. nucleatum subspecies animalis and polymorphum and S. mutans non-c serotypes, are prone to extra-oral translocation. These findings advocate the importance of identification and LOXO-101 cell line quantification of potential pathogens at the subtype levels for accurate prediction of disease potential.”
“Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) is the cause of hypercalcemia in the majority of patients with hypercalcemia and cancer. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-RP) has been identified

as the circulating factor that mediates HHM. An N-terminal and a C-terminal PTH-RP are clinically useful assays for screening patients for HHM, and both assays are elevated in such patients. C-terminal PTH-RP depends on glomerular filtration and accumulates in patients with renal failure without malignancy, resulting in falsely-elevated levels, whereas N-terminal PTH-RP is low or undetectable in such patients. We present a case of a patient with renal failure and hypercalcemia who did not have an obvious malignancy and who presented with an elevated C-terminal PTH-RP level and a normal N-terminal PTH-RP. In patients with renal failure and hypercalcemia without cancer, C-terminal PTH-RP may be falsely elevated, especially if the eGFR is <20 mL/minute, and in such patients, N-terminal PTH-RP, because it is less affected by renal function, is the preferred test.”
“Purpose of review

Prostate cancer is the most common solid organ cancer type among American men.

(PACE 2010; 1382-1391) “

(PACE 2010; 1382-1391).”
“Flea-borne MK-4827 solubility dmso infections are emerging or re-emerging throughout the world, and their incidence is on the rise. Furthermore, their distribution and that of their vectors is shifting and expanding. This publication reviews general flea biology and the distribution of the flea-borne diseases of public health importance throughout the world, their principal flea vectors, and the extent of their public health burden.

Such an overall review is necessary to understand the importance of this group of infections and the resources that must be allocated to their control by public health authorities to ensure their timely diagnosis and treatment. (C) 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Atherosclerosis is the main cause of coronary heart disease and stroke, the two major causes of death in developed society. There selleck is emerging evidence of excess risk of cardiovascular disease at low radiation doses in various occupationally exposed groups receiving small daily radiation doses. Assuming

that they are causal, the mechanisms for effects of chronic fractionated radiation exposures on cardiovascular disease are unclear. We outline a spatial reaction-diffusion model for atherosclerosis and perform stability analysis, based wherever possible on human data. We show that a predicted consequence of multiple small radiation doses is to cause mean chemo-attractant Quizartinib (MCP-1) concentration to increase linearly with cumulative dose. The main driver for the increase in MCP-1 is monocyte death, and consequent reduction in MCP-1 degradation. The radiation-induced risks predicted by the model are quantitatively consistent with those observed in a number of occupationally-exposed groups. The changes in equilibrium MCP-1 concentrations with low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration are also consistent with experimental and

epidemiologic data. This proposed mechanism would be experimentally testable. If true, it also has substantive implications for radiological protection, which at present does not take cardiovascular disease into account. The Japanese A-bomb survivor data implies that cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality contribute similarly to radiogenic risk. The major uncertainty in assessing the low-dose risk of cardiovascular disease is the shape of the dose response relationship, which is unclear in the Japanese data. The analysis of the present paper suggests that linear extrapolation would be appropriate for this endpoint.”
“The sinoatrial node is the primary pacemaker of the heart. Nodal dysfunction with aging, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and even endurance athletic training can lead to a wide variety of pathological clinical syndromes.