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the manuscript and MS critically revised it. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Citrus canker, caused by the Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xac) (syn. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri) [1, 2], is one of the most important diseases of citrus crop worldwide . Citrus canker is widely distributed in wet subtropical citrus growing areas and affects most commercial citrus selleck inhibitor varieties [3, 4]. The canker symptom is characterized by raised necrotic lesions on leaves, stems and fruit of infected trees; and in severe cases, defoliation, twig dieback, general tree decline, blemished fruit and premature fruit drop can occur Dolichyl-phosphate-mannose-protein mannosyltransferase [3, 4]. Wind-blown rain is the primary short- to medium-distance spread mechanism for citrus canker and long-distance dissemination is usually caused by transportation of infected citrus fruits and plant materials . The decrease of yield and less value or entirely unmarketable of infected fruit are responsible for serious economic losses . Moreover, this disease has a significant impact on commerce due to restrictions to national and international fruit trade from canker-affected areas . Economic losses are also resulting from costly eradication programs and heave use of chemical treatments such as copper-based bactericides for prevention from and control of citrus canker disease .