The binding activity with MDA-MB231 increased with fusion

The binding activity with MDA-MB231 increased with fusion protein concentration (from 0.5 to 10 μM). When the protein concentration reached 10 μM, the binding activity was found to be at max capacity (Figure 1I). Real-time Q-PCR and translational analysis Transcription of RGD- core-IFN-α2a

was examined by RT-PCR, using total RNA isolated from Sf9 cells infected with the recombinant virus vAcH1, vAcH2, vAcH3, and vAcH4. The transcriptional levels of vAcH1 and vAcH2 are higher than the vAcH3 and vAcH4 (Figure 2C). At the same time, the Western blotting click here results show that RGD-core-IFN-α2a expression levels in vAcH1 and vAcH2 are higher than Ku-0059436 manufacturer levels from vAcH3 and vAcH4 (Figure 2D). From the results of binding, transcription, and translation analysis, we concluded that vAcH1 and vAcH2 are more effective on cancer cells. We then used vAcH1 and vAcH2 to analyze the VLP functions. Figure 2 Transcription

and expression of HCV core-IFN-α2a recombinant viruses. (A) Identification of pFBD-H1 and pFBD-H2. M: 1Kb Plus DNA ladder; pFBD-H1 and pFBD-H2 samples were digested by BamHI and EcoRI. (B) Identification of pFBD-H3 and pFBD-H4. M: 1Kb Plus DNA ladder; pFBD-H3 and pFBD-H4 samples were digested by BamHI and EcoRI. (C) RT-PCR results of HCV core gene in recombination viruses infect cells. Total RNA was isolated from Sf9 infected with vAcH1, vAcH2, vAcH3, or vAcH4. cDNA was synthesized with SuperScript First Strand Synthesis kit (Invitrogen) with 0.5 to 1.0 μg RNA according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Quantitative RT-PCR reactions were carried

out using SYBR Green PCR master mix reagents on an ABI 7500 Fast Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems). (D) Expression of HCV core-IFN-α2a fusion protein in recombinant virus infected cells. M: protein marker. Cells were harvested at 72 h post-infection (hpi) and lysed in SDS-PAGE loading buffer. Twenty micrograms of total protein was separated by SDS-PAGE and subjected to Western blot assay. vAcH1 and vAcH2 inhibit breast cancer cells MDA-MD-231 migration and invasion IFN-α has an established role in cancer therapy in some cancer types [19–21]. We set out to examine the role of VLP H1 and VLP H2 in breast cancer cell migration and invasion. MDA-MB-231 cells were plated on glass-bottomed dishes coated with 5 μg/ml fibronectin; we then add 10 μM purified VLP H1, VLP H2, or isometheptene PBS (as control) for 2 h. The migration was determined using time-lapse cell migration assays. VLP H1 and VLP H2 significantly reduced the total distance and directionality of cell migration and strongly inhibited the net distance of cell migration (Figure 3B,C,D,E,F). Figure 3 VLP H1 and VLP H2 inhibit breast cancer cell migration and invasion. (A) VLP H1 and VLP H2 inhibited the invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. Data are presented as mean ± SEM, n = 5. Ctrl vs VLP H1; Ctrl vs VLP H2, p < 0.01. (B) Statistic results of net distance of the cells that treated with PBS, 10 μM VLP H1 or VLP H2.

Lenaerts et al , [20] showed that with 10ug/ml, PA-824 treatment

Lenaerts et al., [20] showed that with 10ug/ml, PA-824 treatment under anaerobic conditions a reduction of 0.99 CFU/ml, from 6.42 to 5.43 CFU/ml was observed at the end of 28 days (24 days of anaerobic culture + 4 days of drug treatment), compared to 6.42 CFU/ml in the control. In our study, treatment

with 12.5 μg/ml of PA-824 showed a reduction to 4.69 ± 0.12 CFU/ml from 6.58 ± 0.13 CFU/ml after 4 days of treatment, a net reduction of 1.89 CFU/ml which is higher than the reduction selleck kinase inhibitor observed by Lenaerts et al., with 10 μg/ml. Further, treatment with 2 μg/ml of PA-824 Lenaerts et al., [20] showed a reduction of 0.81 CFU/ml from 6.42 to 5.61 CFU/ml compared to control. In this study with 3 μg/ml of PA-824, a similar reduction of persisting M. tuberculosis count from 6.53 ± 0.07 to 4.93 ± 0.32 CFU/ml (a AZD5363 reduction of 1.6 CFU/ml) in 21 days was observed. This shows an approximate doubling of the killing activity (0.81 to 1.6 CFU/ml) when the concentration and time are varied from 2 μg/ml (4 days) to 3 μg/ml (21 days). An increase in the treatment concentration to 50 μg/ml of PA-824 for 4 days in the study by Lenaerts et al., resulted in reductions to 5.24 CFU/ml whereas the treatment of 12.5 μg/ml of PA-824 for 21 days, which is a long term duration, resulted in complete reduction in the M. tuberculosis viable count. This could signify an important Ponatinib nmr role of concentration and

duration of PA-824 treatment that is required to control the persisting M. tuberculosis. Considering the role of PA-824 as a NO donor, excess production of NO in the intracellular environment could fuel the growth of M. tuberculosis through its ‘truncated hemoglobin’ N (trHbN) detoxification machinery. In M. tuberculosis H37Ra, the activity of the glbN gene encoding trHbN is upregulated by the general nitrosative stress inducer, nitrite, by

the NO releaser sodium GSK872 nitroprusside and by hypoxia. The activity of the glbN gene is also enhanced during M. tuberculosis H37Ra invasion of THP-1 activated macrophages (producing NO) [21]. In in vivo, the high oxygen affinity of trHbN (P50 ~ 0.01 mm Hg) may ensure a low but critical level of oxygen, granting survival of M. tuberculosis in the granuloma hypoxic environment when the bacilli enter latency [22]. It has been proposed that the oxygenated trHbN (oxy-trHbN) catalyzes the rapid oxidation of nitric oxide to innocuous nitrate with a second-order rate constant (k’NOD ≈ 745 × 106 m-1 · s-1), which is 15 and 34 fold faster than the reaction of horse heart and sperm whale myoglobin, respectively [23, 24]. The resulting nitrate, the most effective alternate terminal electron acceptor after molecular oxygen, could protect the M. tuberculosis from hypoxic, acid and RNS stress [25]. From crystallographic studies, it is proposed that residue Phe62 of trHbN exists in two conformations.

To create high-quality ZnO NRs, various techniques have been prop

To create high-quality ZnO NRs, various techniques have been proposed, such as the aqueous hydrothermal growth [10], metal-organic Talazoparib chemical vapor deposition [17], vapor phase epitaxy [18], vapor phase transport [19], GDC-0449 and vapor–liquid-solid method [20]. Among these methods, the aqueous hydrothermal technique is an easy and convenient method for the cultivation of ZnO NRs. In addition, this technique had some promising advantages, like its capability for large-scale production at low temperature and the production of epitaxial, anisotropic ZnO NRs [21, 22]. By using this method and varying the chemical use, reaction temperature,

molarity, and pH of the solution, a variety of ZnO nanostructures can be formed, such as nanowires (NWs) [16, 23], nanoflakes [24], nanorods [25], nanobelts [26], and nanotubes [27]. In this study, we demonstrated a low-cost hydrothermal growth method to synthesize ZnO NRs on a Si substrate, with the use of different types of solvents. TGF beta inhibitor Moreover, the effects of the solvents on the structural and

optical properties were investigated. Studying the solvents is important because this factor remarkably affects the structural and optical properties of the ZnO NRs. To the best of our knowledge, no published literature is available that analyzed the effects of different seeded layers on the structural and optical properties of ZnO NRs. Moreover, a comparison of such NRs with the specific models of the refractive index has not been published. Methods ZnO seed solution preparation Homogenous and uniform ZnO nanoparticles were deposited using the sol–gel spin coating method [28]. Before seed layer deposition, the ZnO solution was prepared using zinc acetate dihydrate [Zn (CH3COO)2 · 2H2O] as a precursor and monoethanolamine (MEA) as a stabilizer. In this study, methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), very isopropanol (IPA), and 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME) were used as solvents.

All of the chemicals were used without further purification. ZnO sol (0.2 M) was obtained by mixing 4.4 g of zinc acetate dihydrate with 100 ml of solvent. To ensure that the zinc powder was completely dissolved in the solvent, the mixed solution was stirred on a hot plate at 60°C for 20 min. Then, 1.2216 g of MEA was gradually added to the ZnO solution, while stirring constantly at 60°C for 2 h. The milky solution was then changed into a homogenous and transparent ZnO solution. The solution was stored for 24 h to age at room temperature (RT) before deposition. ZnO seed layer preparation In this experiment, a p-type Si (100) wafer was used as the substrate. Prior to the ZnO seed layer deposition process, the substrate underwent standard cleaning processes, in which it was ultrasonically cleaned with hydrochloric acid, acetone, and isopropanol.

aureus A combination of conditions including acidic pH and post-

aureus. A combination of conditions including acidic pH and post-logarithmic growth phase induced the accumulation of diacylated lipoproteins [56]. By the usage of C19 fatty acid, mycobacterial Lnt strongly differs in substrate specificity from E. coli Lnt. E. coli Lnt utilizes all three major phospholipids of E. coli phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin as its

fatty acid source in vivo [40]. Subsequent analysis revealed that both the phospholipid head group and its acyl chain composition affect N-acyltransferase activity in vitro [41]. E. coli Lnt incorporates palmitic (C16) fatty acids from Quizartinib clinical trial the S n 1 position of phospholipids to diacylated lipoproteins [42]. In mycobacterial phospholipids the S n 1 position is esterified principally with octadecanoic or tuberculostearic acid (C18 related fatty acids), whereas palmitic acid (C16) is mainly located at the S n 2 position [57]. Based on this and the fact, that palmitic acids were used for N-acylation of lipoproteins in M. smegmatis[12, 13], Nakayama et al. proposed that M. smegmatis Lnt uses fatty acids from the S n 2 position as substrates and therefore has a different specificity than E. coli Lnt [20]. This specificity

obviously is different in M. bovis BCG. Our results provide strong evidence, that not only palmitic acid from the S n 2 position, but also tuberculostearic acid (C19), a fatty acid from the S n 1 position of phospholipids is transferred by Lnt [57]. Lipoproteins are recognized by TLR2 in association with TLR1 or TLR6. While diacylated lipoproteins carrying the check details S-diacylglyceryl residue are recognized by TLR2/6 heterodimers, triacylated lipoproteins carrying the additional N-acyl are recognized by TLR1/2 heterodimers. The two ester-bound fatty acids are inserted into a pocket in TLR2 while the amide-bound fatty acid is inserted into a hydrophobic channel in TLR1. Therefore the N-acyl of the lipoprotein

is indispensable for the heterodimerization of TLR2 and TLR1 and thus the initiation of TLR2/1 signaling [58, 59]. Recent investigations click here indicate that TLR1 polymorphisms are associated with resistance towards bacterial pathogens, including M. tuberculosis[60, 61]. It may be hypothesized that the modification of lipoproteins with particular fatty acids plays a crucial role for lipoprotein Ro-3306 mouse function, its retention in a membrane, and interaction with TLRs. However, whether the N-acylation with C19 fatty acid is only characteristic for LprF or also for other lipoproteins and whether it is a feature of M. bovis BCG Lnt remains to be investigated. Beside the triacylated forms, also diacylated forms of the N-terminal peptide were found in proteins from the parental BCG strain. A modification with C16/C19 diacylglycerol was found in LpqL and a C16/C16 diacylglycerol was found in LppX. These molecules probably indicate N-terminal peptides from unmature proteins which have not been converted to mature lipoproteins by Lnt yet. Lipoproteins from M.

Moreover other E5 indirect mechanisms may be hypothesised based o

Moreover other E5 indirect mechanisms may be hypothesised based on its complex modulation

of cell proteome and membrane lipids and proteins composition [45–47]. Following the infection with a retrovirus construct bearing the HPV-16 E5 sequence, the E5 specific Target Selective Inhibitor Library ic50 mRNA could be consistently detected in FRM and M14 cells up to thirty days post infection. The E5 viral specific mRNA was expressed at a level comparable with the one of the GAPDH housekeeping reference gene. The E5 expression was well tolerated with almost no cytotoxic effect and no modification of cell morphology. Expectedly, as revealed by experiments with AO, the E5 expression was associated with a relevant modification of the endocellular pH and with a neat re-activation of the tyrosinase enzyme. These data are in favour of the hypothesis that E5 protein does indeed act through an interaction with 16 kDa subunit c of the V0-ATPase sub-complex. In fact, in amelanotic melanomas the most of tyrosinase and of other melanogenic proteins, instead of being transported to the Golgi and endosomes for further processing and glicosilation, due to the acidic environment, are retained in the ER where they are rapidly degraded by proteasome [48]. Conversely, the maturation of tyrosinase to the enzymatically active form (figure 4b) indicate the elevation of the endocellular pH to a near 17-AAG price neutral value following the V-ATPase complex inhibition thus supporting the hypothesis of an interaction of the E5 Megestrol Acetate with the 16 kDa sub unit c. This interaction could reasonably

occurs in the ER where the 16 kDa V-ATPase subunit is synthesized and where most of E5 is localized. However we could not provide a positive evidence for a direct interaction and, considering the multifaceted cellular effects of E5, other indirect mechanisms may be envisioned. Namely the modifications of membrane lipids compositions and functions [45, 46] and the deep modifications of cell transcriptome [47], both obtained in HaCaT cells, have the potentials, either alone or in combination, to modulate the proteins and organellar functions without implying any direct physical E5/subunit c interaction. The E5 expressing cells proved able to sustain the melanin deposition and to survive in anchorage independent culture conditions (figure 4c) thus confirming and extending the observation on mouse embryo fibroblasts [17] and human epithelial HaCaT cells [49] already reported.

strain PCC 7120/hoxW/NP_484813 HoxWN7120 3d hoxH BAB72723 1 [63]

strain PCC 7120/hoxW/NP_484813 HoxWN7120 3d hoxH BAB72723.1 [63] Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120/hupW/NP_485466 HupWN7120 2 hupL BAB72634.1 [63] Pyrococcus furiosus DSM 3638/hycI/AAL80741 HycIPf 4     [79] Ralstonia GS-7977 concentration eutropha H16/hoxM/AAP85761 HoxMReH16 1     [85] Ralstonia eutropha H16/hoxW/CAA63575 HoxWReH16 3d     [85] Ralstonia eutropha H16/PHG070/AAP85823 ReH16 –     [15] Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Viciae/hupD/P27649 HupDRl 1     [75]

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Choleraesuis str. SC-B67/hyaD/AAX65690 HyaDSe 1     [71] Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Choleraesuis str. SC-B67/hupD/AAX65459 Fosbretabulin concentration HupDSe 1     [71] Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Choleraesuis str. SC-B67/hybD/AAX66993 HybDSe 1     [71] Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Choleraesuis str. SC-B67/hycI/AAX66684.1 HycISe 4     [71] Shigella boydii Sb227/hyaD/ABB66821 HyaDSb 1     [87] Shigella boydii Sb227/hybD/ABB67388 GDC 0032 cell line HybDSb 1     [87] Shigella boydii Sb227/hycI/ABB67327 HycISb 4     [87] Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002/hoxW/AAN03570.1 HoxWS7002 3d       Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803/hoxW/BAA17680.1 HoxWS6803

3d     [76, 77] Thiocapsa roseopersicina/-/AY214929 HoxWTr 3d     [72] Thiocapsa roseopersicina/hupD/Q56362 HupDTr 1     [80] Thiocapsa roseopersicina/hydD-hynD/AAN87047.1 HynDTr –     [82] aAs used in phylogenetic tree (Figure

1). Hydrogenases shown in the table do not represent the total number of hydrogenases in each organism. Abbreviations; H2ase; hydrogenase, ref: reference. Searches for homologues sequences of Npun_F0373 (Nostoc punctiforme), Alr1422 (Nostoc PCC 7120) and promoter regions were done by both using the NCBI and CyanoBase databases and their respective BLAST programs. Prediction of DNA secondary structure was done by using the online program MFold [97, 98]. Transmembrane regions were predicted using the online program SOSUI [99–101]. For location studies of conserved residues on the surface of the proteases, alignments were performed for three of the protease groups revealed in the phylogenetic tree; group 5 – proteases Bumetanide of HoxW type (HoxW from Nostoc PCC 7120,Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413,Lyngbya sp. strain PCC 8106, Ralstonia eutropha H16,Thiocapsa roseopersicina, Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002,Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803, Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1, and Methylococcus capsulatus strain Bath), group 2- cyanobacterial proteases of HupW type (HupW from Nostoc PCC 7120, Nostoc punctiforme, Lyngbya sp. strain PCC 8106, Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413, Nodularia spumigena CCY 9414 and Gloeothece sp. strain PCC 6909) and group 1- proteases of HybD type (HupD/Azoarcus sp.

328 0 978-1 802 Clinical stage ≥ T3 1 416 1 109-1 808 De Nunzio 2

328 0.978-1.802 Clinical stage ≥ T3 1.416 1.109-1.808 De Nunzio 2011 [25] Italy Cross-section study Patients who underwent prostate biopsy for PSA > 4 ng/ml or abnormal DRE 69 2009-2011 NCEP-ATP-III 83 Gleason score ≥7 3.82 1.33-10.9 Clinical stage ≥ T3 NA NA click here Jeon 2012 [28] Korea Cross-section study Patients who underwent prostate biopsy for PSA > 4 ng/ml or abnormal DRE 68.86 ± 8.95 2003-2011 NCEP-ATP-III 90 Gleason score ≥7(4 + 3) 0.101 0.022-0.473 Clinical stage ≥ T3 NA NA Morote 2012 [26] Spain Cross-section study Patients who underwent prostate biopsy for PSA > 4 ng/ml or abnormal DRE 68(46-79) 2006-2010 NCEP-ATP-III

848 Gleason score >7 1.75 1.260-2.414 Clinical stage ≥ T3 NA NA Castillejos-Molina 2011 [23] Mexico Case-control study Patients with PC who underwent surgical treatment 64.8 ± 6.97 1990-2007 WHO 210 Biochemical TGF-beta inhibition recurrence 2.73 1.65-4.50 Post 2011 [27] United States Case-control study Patients

who underwent radical prostatectomy 60.9 1999- 2004 NCEP-ATP-III 383 Biochemical recurrence 1.5 0.90-2.6 Jaggers 2009 [30] United States Cohort study Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study 20-88 1977-2003 NCEP-ATP-III 185 Mortality 1.32 0.63-2.77 Martin 2009 [14] Norway Cohort study HUNT2 48 ± 16.4 1996-2005 NCEP-ATP-III 107 Mortality 0.81 0.52-1.25 Häggström 2012 [19] Norway Sweden Austria Cohort study Me-Can 44 NA Upper quartile Levels ATP-III criteria 961 Mortality 1.13 1.03-1.25 PCa = prostate cancer; RRs = Relative risks; CI = confidence

interval; WHO = World learn more Health Organization; NCEP-ATP-III = National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III; IDF = International Diabetes Federation; HUNT 2 = Nord-Trondelang Health Study; NA = Not available; DRE = Digital rectal examination. Detailed search steps are described in Figure 1. Briefly, from the initial literature search we identified 547 abstracts. Twenty-three articles were considered of interest and full text of each article was retrieved for detailed evaluation. Eleven studies investigated the association between MetS and prostate cancer [11–21]. Nine of them were longitudinal cohort studies that reported the RRs of PCa in cancer-free population with and without MetS [7–15]. Seven studies evaluated MetS and pathological and clinical stages ADP ribosylation factor of PCa, of these studies, 7/7 investigate Gleason score [20, 23–26, 28, 29] and 4/7 investigated clinical stage [20, 23, 24, 29]. Two case-control studies explored biochemical recurrence after primary treatment [23, 27], and three longitudinal cohort studies focused on prostate cancer-specific mortality [14, 19, 30]. Figure 1 Selection of studies for meta-analysis. Main findings Prostate cancer risk Result from a meta-analysis based on nine longitudinal cohort studies revealed that there was no association between MetS and prostate cancer risk (RR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.85-1.09 n = 9 studies) (Figure 2). Figure 2 RR of prostate cancer risk for MetS presence.

Chem Rev 2004, 104:293–346 10 1021/cr030698+CrossRef 3 Jain PK,

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The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions ZY prepared all the samples, participated in all of the measurements and data analysis, and drafted the manuscript. DG and DX conceived and designed the manuscript. ZZ1 carried out the XPS measurements and data analysis. JZ participated in the SQUID and TG-DTA measurements. ZZ2 carried out the XRD measurements and data analysis. ZS participated in the data analysis and interpretation of the results. All authors have been

involved in revising the click here manuscript and read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Until now, lots of research have been devoted towards the development of Si-based light sources that could enable the integration of photonics with Si microelectronics [1–3]. Si-based light sources could reduce the fabrication cost because their compatibility with a conventional complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology is better than any other light source such as conventional Buspirone HCl GaAs- and GaN-based light emitters. Despite a lot of efforts for the realization of Si-based light sources with high efficiency, luminescence efficiency from Si-based light sources is still very low due to an indirect bandgap nature of the bulk Si [4, 5]. Recently, because of this obstacle for realizing efficient Si-based light sources, Si nanocrystals (NCs) have, therefore, attracted the most attention as promising light sources for the next generation of Si-based nanophotonics [6–8]. Si NCs showed a quantum confinement effect that increased in the overlapping of electron–hole wave functions, leading to an enhancement in luminescence efficiency [9]. Another advantage for light sources using Si NCs is that the optical bandgap can be easily tuned by changing the size of NCs. This implies that Si NCs are of particular interest as a light source, covering the whole visible wavelength range.

G vag1008 is the only probe with higher sensitivity (97 5%) than

G.vag1008 is the only probe with higher sensitivity (97.5%) than our probe, being able to detect one more G. vaginalis strain. This higher sensitivity is due to the Poziotinib solubility dmso presence of a degenerate oligonucleotide in the sequence of the probe (see Table 2),

allowing G.vag1008 to act as two different sequence probes. However, G.vag1008 has 24 oligonucleotides (i.e. 9 nucleotides more than our probe) and it is a DNA probe, which penetrates the cell wall less efficiently [52] and implies need for the use of long hybridization see more periods. GardV probe detected species from several bacterial genera present in vaginal samples, such as Alloscardovia, Parascardovia and Scardovia spp. [53]. G.vag1008 probe hybridized with Aeriscardovia spp. that may also be found in vaginal samples [53] and therefore this represents an important pitfall for the G. vaginalis detection with such probes. It is important to notice that our Gard162 probe is the first PNA probe specifically designed for G. vaginalis detection. Other PNA probes for the detection of learn more lactobacilli [31, 46] revealed several disadvantages when compared to Lac663 probe, as we shown before [26]. Multiplex FISH detection Although numerous authors attempted to correlate differences between healthy and BV vaginal samples [54–57], no consensus was achieved, except that biofilm formation

of G. vaginalis and a decrease in lactobacilli number could be considered as the initial stages in the pathogenesis of BV [10, 58]. Swidsinski and colleagues already conducted an international follow-up study in which vaginal samples from several BV patients were analyzed by DNA-based FISH and a dense as well as active bacterial biofilm on vaginal mucosa was Phosphoprotein phosphatase detected, primarily consisting of G. vaginalis[47]. Therefore, multiplex FISH to analyze G. vaginalis biofilm establishment and subsequently lactobacilli replacement appeared to be a useful molecular methodology for BV diagnosis in vaginal samples. Although several

authors already developed specific probes for G. vaginalis and Lactobacillus spp. detection for FISH, our multiplex method presented new improvements on the method (see Table 2). Due to the difficulty to obtain fresh vaginal samples diagnosed with BV, we devised an in vitro experiment mimicking the shift from healthy vaginal flora to BV HeLa cells were incubated with different concentrations of G. vaginalis and Lactobacillus strains (L. crispatus and L. iners), ranging from normal to BV vaginal microflora contents (1×103 to 1×109 CFU/ml; see Table 4). The HeLa cell line is an established tool in experimental research with lactobacilli. It has not only been used to study attachment of several Lactobacillus species, but also of other pathogens [41–43]. The Lactobacillus strains used here were selected because high concentrations of L. crispatus (in conjugation with low loads or absence of G.