6% w/v NaNO3 amended with either 1% w/v glucose, 2% v/v glycerol or 5% v/v ethanol and incubated at 28 °C for 4 h or amended with either 1% w/v chitin or 1% w/v Rhipicephalus microplus exoskeleton and incubated
for 48 h in a liquid medium at 28 °C. Protein extracts were prepared from M. anisopliae grown in CM medium for 24 h at 28 °C and then transferred to CM medium amended with (1% w/v glucose, 2% v/v glycerol find more or 5% v/v ethanol) for a further 6 h. After precipitation with trichloroacetic acid 10% w/v, 2 mg of proteins were focused isoelectrically in a 17 cm pH 5–8 Bio-Rad strip, after which the second dimension was performed in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) 12%. For Western blots, the proteins were transferred to a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane and GAPDH was detected with a polyclonal antiserum raised against the recombinant GAPDH from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Barbosa et al., 2006). Samples of the cellular extracts were fractionated by two-dimensional (2-D) SDS-PAGE, and the proteins were electrotransferred overnight at 100 mA to PVDF membranes. The 36-kDa, pI-7.0 spot was excised from the gel, trypsin digested and click here subjected to MS (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The amino acid
sequences were obtained via Mascot analysis (carbamidomethyl as fixed modifications; oxidation as variable modifications; ±0.1 Da peptide tolerance; ±0.1 Da MS/MS tolerance; +1, +2 and +3 peptide charge; monoisotopic) using the NCBInr database. Conidia were RVX-208 harvested from 10-day-old plate cultures. Appressoria were isolated from 16 h cultures in a 0.04% yeast extract only source medium cultivated on coverslips. Mycelia were cultivated on CM at 28 °C for 24 h. Blastospore cells were isolated from cultures in Adamek medium (Adamek, 1963) at 28 °C for 64 h and, after this time period, 3 h of cultivation in CM was carried out to obtain late germinated blastospores. Cells were fixed in 3.7% formaldehyde
overnight at 4 °C. After incubation in blocking buffer for 1 h at 37 °C, cells were incubated with a polyclonal antiserum raised against the recombinant protein from P. brasiliensis at a 1 : 100 dilution for 1 h. After this, the cells were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) 1 : 50 for 1 h at 37 °C. Slides were observed under a Zeiss immunofluorescence microscope. GAPDH activity was measured spectrophotometrically at 340 nm following the increase in absorbance due to NADH formation. To determine the enzymatic activity of GAPDH on the external conidial surface, samples were obtained from protein extracts as described in Silva et al. (2009). Conidial cell integrity was confirmed by microscopy and the enzymatic activity of the proteins from cell-surface GAPDH was measured in a 20-min assay. Quantitative fluorescence measurements of immunolabeled GAPDH protein on conidia were also obtained.