56-59 Such broad (non-Gaussian, log-normal) degree distributions are also seen in tract tracing studies in cortex of nonhuman primates.43 Virtually all studies of human brain networks have found evidence of small-world attributes,60 generally measured as high clustering and a short path length, or alternatively as high local and global efficiency. The presence of small-world organization is indicative of a balance between anatomical and functional segregation
on the one side (indexed by clustering and local efficiency) and the capacity for global integration on the other side (indexed by the prevalence of short Calcitriol clinical communication paths and global efficiency). The brain appears to be one among many Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical examples Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of small-world networks encountered in many different contexts, from social to technological to biological enzalutamide mechanism of action systems.61 However, it should be noted that small-world attributes are not uniquely diagnostic of particular network architectures and can appear in a variety of connectivity models, including randomly rewired lattices, modular and even scale-free networks. Closer analysis of brain networks has shown that high clustering is often due to the presence of modules, or network communities of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical densely interconnected neural elements. Such modules are collectives of elements that share common input and output projections,
exhibit similar physiological responses and form coherent functional systems.62 More recent studies have suggested that modularity of structural and functional brain networks extends across multiple scales, resulting in a hierarchy Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of nested “modules-within-modules,” 63,64 a mode of organization encountered in other networks specialized for information-processing. In functional terms, modules allow for rapid and efficient sharing of information among brain regions that tend to contribute to a common set of tasks or responses, while promoting their functional specialization by creating boundaries that restrict the spread of information Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical across the entire network. To ensure functional integration
across modules requires specialized hub regions, generally identified by their high degree, high centrality, and diverse connection profiles that straddle the boundaries between modules.30 Several studies of human Brefeldin_A structural brain networks have attempted to identify hubs, and most studies have converged on a set of regions including portions of the medial and superior parietal cortex as well as selected regions in orbitofrontal, superior frontal, and lateral prefrontal cortex.56,58 Many of these regions have been previously described as multi- or transmodal association areas65 and exhibit complex physiological responses, diverse activation patterns across tasks, and widespread functional connectivity.