Whilst formation of a bipolar mitotic spindle is largely driven by microtubule nucleation in the centrosomes, chromosomes also play a function in bipolar spindle formation, even in centrosomecontaining cells . Through mitosis, the GTPase Ran is converted into Ran-GTP inside the vicinity of chromosomes, by means of RCC1, its GEF that is certainly bound to chromosomes . This generates a gradient of lively Ran-GTP all over mitotic chromosomes . Ran-GTP subsequently binds importin-? resulting in the release of crucial microtubule-assembly variables like TPX2, Numa, NUSAP and Rae1 close to chromosomes . From the presence of exogenous Ran-GTP, beads coated with Aurora-A are capable of driving bipolar spindle assembly in Xenopus extracts devoid of centrosomes and chromatin but in the TPX2 and ?-tubulin-dependent style , suggesting that Aurora-A activity is known as a significant driving force for spindle assembly. Just lately, Aurora-Awas observed to reside in a big multi-protein complicated to the mitotic spindle consisting of Aurora-A, TPX2, Eg5, the microtubule-stabilising protein XMAP125/chTOG as well as the MT-binding protein HURP .
Aurora-A kinase action promotes assembly of this complex, that may be responsible for chromatin-driven bipolar spindle assembly. . Mitotic TSU-68 entry and cell cycle regulation Many research have proven that Aurora-A plays a function in advertising timely mitotic entry by controlling first centrosomal activation of Cyclin-B/Cdk-1 . Not too long ago, it had been shown that Aurora-A promotes the G2-activation of Polo-like kinase-1 as a result of direct phosphorylation inside the T-loop of Plk-1 . Interestingly, this phosphorylation specifically usually requires the Aurora-A cofactor Bora . Energetic Plk1 controls Cyclin-B/Cdk1 action by phosphorylation with the Cdc25B phosphatase and degradation on the Cdk1 inhibitory kinase Wee1 .
Also, Aurora-A also right phosphorylates and promotes the activation on the Cdc25B phosphatase at centrosomes . Due to the fact Cdc25B is required for preliminary centrosomal activation of Cyclin-B/Cdk-1 all through the G2/M transition , this suggests that Aurora-A might feed into this procedure by Cdc25B. Besides staying essential centres for cell cycle cues and spindle selleck chemical special info formation, centrosomes also can induce the formation of tail-like protrusions identified as cilia that act as sensors of environmental cues that handle cell signalling . Dysfunction of cilia is connected with a few conditions and could play a purpose during tumour development. Cilia assembly is cell cycle regulated, and Aurora-A, together with its binding protein HEF1 influences cilia function by triggering cilia disassembly through cell cycle progression .
Aurora-B . Chromosome condensation Condensation of chromosomes into compact structures is important for error-free sister chromatid segregation and is driven by the action of Condensin complexes .
The Aurora kinase inhibitors mentioned on this function have been prepared as proven in Schemes . Sulfone was prepared in six ways from readily attainable , dibromopyrazine. Conversion of sulfone to ester was completed in excellent yield making use of methyl aminoisothiazole carboxylate and sodium hydride . Subsequent reduction of ester with NaBH CaCl afforded the alcohol whichwasconverted towards the corresponding mesylate. Side chain introduction was attained by mild heating from the mesylate inside the presence of various amines. Acidic SEM deprotection afforded compounds a p. Functionalization within the aminoisothiazole benzylic position was accomplished by initial SEM safeguarding the position NH group of compound . Direct conversion of di SEM protected ester towards the corresponding ketones was achievable by cryogenic addition of Grignard reagents. On larger scale, extra reproducible outcomes have been obtained by utilizing the Weinreb amide providing ketones with extremely large purity.
DIBAL reduction in the ester afforded aldehyde , which in turn was converted to epoxide employing the Johnson Corey Chaykovsky response. Regioselective epoxide selleck chemical Sirtuin activator ring opening afforded alkoxy alcohols . All alcohol intermediates had been converted to last products implementing an analogous sequence as described for compounds in Scheme . The synthesis of cyclopropyl analog commenced with saponification of ester followed by HATU mediated coupling supplying amide in substantial yield . Treatment of amide with TiCl Mg DCM introduced the cyclopropyl moiety. Acidic worldwide SEM deprotection afforded the preferred cyclopropyl analog . All chiral compounds were first ready as racemic mixtures. The promising profile of compound prompted an evaluation of each enantiomer and in the end led to the advancement of a scalable asymmetric synthesis. It had been envisioned that the major alcohol intermediate can be obtained by asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketone .
To that finish, the DIP Chloride? reduction of ketone provided alcohola with great asymmetric induction and in very good chemical yield .b Conversion of your enantiomerically enriched alcohol to your desired inhibitor was achieved in three techniques. AMN-107 Final preparative supercritical fluid chromatography was employed to enrich the enantiomeric purity of inhibitor . Previously we disclosed that place basic functionality enhanced the physiochemical properties in the imidazo pyrazine series and, in some circumstances, enhanced cell primarily based action. As an example, inhibitor showed superb cell potency relative to inhibitor , but lacked oral bioavailability . Closely associated morpholine and piperidine analogs have been discovered to have enhanced oral publicity in rat relative to compound .
Thus, this research examined a flavonol triglycoside with promising anti weight problems and anti style diabetic effects. Its metabolic function was studied, and also the effects offered insight into the molecular mechanisms by which influences the regulation of body fat cell differentiation. The outcomes even further recommend which can be employed to manage the adipocyte daily life cycle. On top of that, we demonstrated the AMPK pathway exerts an extreme influence on mediated glucose metabolic process and inhibited adipocyte differentiation. Protein kinase B is usually a serine threonine kinase and downstream target for phosphatidylinositol kinase that plays a central purpose within the regulation of cell survival and proliferation. Constitutive activation and overexpression of Akt is recognized in a broad wide range of human tumors, which include breast, prostate, and ovarian carcinomas.
In addition, reduction of PTEN action inside a giant variety of tumors further contributes to your attractiveness of inhibiting Akt exercise as a novel therapeutic approach to cancer treatment method. Akt comprises Tyrphostin 23 clinical trial 3 isoforms that share major sequence identity though possessing disparate functions. Knockout data making use of Akt shRNA suggests that highest efficacy in tumor bearing nude mice would be accomplished by inhibiting all three isoforms. We describe the discovery and optimization of the series of pan Akt inhibitors that have been discovered by means of combinatorial library synthesis, substantial throughput screening , and framework based drug design. Originally, compound was synthesized as part of a combinatorial library that targeted the ATP cleft of kinases. HTS screening identified as being a hit against Akt with an IC . lM.
Synthesis with the personal enantiomers with , and stereochemistry showed a marked variation in potency with Akt ICs of nM and lM, respectively. Even though no X ray structures of Akt had been readily available at the outset of our hif1a inhibitors efforts, quite a few X ray structures of Akt and PKA kinases were identified. Given the higher identity amid the kinase domains of Akt , utilization of the X ray construction of Akt for our early optimization efforts was a viable technique. Docking of compounds and suggested that the former could more effortlessly kind considerably better interactions with Glu, Glu, as well as hydrophobic residues current in the P loop . On this model the quinazoline ring occupies the hydrophobic cavity near the hinge region and accepts a hydrogen bond from the backbone NH of Ala. Based on the docked construction of , we prepared a series of substituted benzyl analogs to probe the SAR with the nascent hit .
Tiny hydrophobic substitution proved to afford the largest potency increases. Replacement on the phenyl ring with napthyl resulted in considerably lower potency versus Akt , as did the incorporation of or pyridyl lM and . lM, respectively. Neither the secondary , nor tertiary amine of , proved to become potent inhibitors of Akt, presumably owing to reduction of interaction with the two glutamate residues.
Following the lower scoring hypotheses have been eradicated employing a percentage cutoff, within the 7 function hypothesis, a total of hypotheses had been subjected to stringent scoring perform evaluation with respect to actives employing default parameters for website, vector, and volume. The major scoring hypotheses, which is, CPH and CPH, have been chosen for creating atom based mostly QSAR models using the PLS regression model. A summary of the statistical data of CPH and CPH and their survival scores are listed in Inhibitors . Thinking of the overall overall performance of numerous pharmacophore designs with respect to unique statistical parameters put to use for your variety of the right QSAR model, similar to r, Q, Pearson R, SD, RMSE, and F value, CPH, that’s, DDHRRRR showed a superb r worth of . for that training set and outstanding predictive power, with Q of Also, a good Pearson R value of . and F worth of . were observed.
Therefore, the CPH hypothesis with one particular hydrophobic group , two hydrogen bond donors and four aromatic rings as pharmacophoric options was retained for even more research. The distances involving the pharmacophoric characteristics are depicted dig this in Inhibitor B and Inhibitor C exhibits the alignment in the PAP derivatives with CPH. As shown in Inhibitors , fitness measures the top quality of each alignment, along with the fitness score provides self-assurance relating to the correctness within the pharmacophore model generated. For the lively compounds whose value of pIC was higher than we noticed that they mapped effectively with CPH. Compound was the reference ligand, that is definitely, the ligand from which the hypothesis was formulated. Its fitness score was a perfect the maximum probable score using the scoring choices that have been selected.
For all of the compounds, the correlation coefficient with the experimental Vincristine activity and its fitness score was revealing a very good correlation among the fitness score as well as the experimental exercise. The interpretation of how the pharmacophore maps onto the PAP derivatives can give insight in to the structural demands for BCR ABL inhibitor exercise and will act as being a guidebook for further modification of the molecules. By observing the complete alignment, for most on the molecules, the aromatic ring benefits from the pharmacophore mapped very well with the B ring and C ring; thus, the B ring and C ring on the PAP derivatives can be used as the template for molecule alignment for other QSAR scientific studies, such as COMFA and COMSIA. In mapping studies, we appropriately distinguished the molecules as active or inactive.
The really lively compounds mapped every one of the practical features of CPH, whereas the much less energetic compounds both did not map in any respect or mapped handful of within the qualities. Such as, in compounds and , quite possibly the most active compounds, a single donor D mapped the NH group situated between the B ring and C ring, plus the other donor D mapped the NH group located in between the C ring and D ring.
Also, apoptosis was characterized by chromatin condensation fragmentation, as established by cell permeabilization followed by DAPI staining and microscopy examination. Lastly, the criterion for necrosis was the loss of plasma membrane integrity, as established by 100 % free PI uptake into non permeabilized cells and movement cytometry evaluation. Comprehensive description of these strategies was presented inside a preceding work , and hence is omitted here Determination of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and transmembrane likely dissipation Inner mitochondrial membrane permeabilization was determined utilizing the calcein AM CoCl strategy reported by Petronilli et al with adaptations for flow cytometry or spectrophotometry making use of HL cells . With this aim, the cells have been collected by centrifugation, extensively washed with PBS, and incubated for min at C in serum and red phenol totally free RPMI medium containing mM calcein AM and mM CoCl. Immediately after medium elimination the cells had been extensively washed with PBS, resuspended within the culture medium the place originally grown, and subjected towards the wanted therapies.
In the end of treatments the cells were positioned on ice and swiftly analyzed by flow cytometry. Handle assays by using confocal microscopy corroborated the preferential labelling of mitochondria original site by calcein following this process . Mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation was determined working with the cationic agent R and flow cytometry evaluation, as earlier described Determination of ROS The intracellular accumulation of ROS was determined working with the fluorescent probes HDCFDA, DHE and DHR. HDCFDA is often a standard indicator of ROS manufacturing , whereas DHE and DHR preferentially measure anion superoxide and peroxides, respectively . With this particular aim, with the end of treatment options the cells had been labelled together with the corresponding probe , extensively washed with cold PBS, re suspended in cold RPMI medium, and swiftly analyzed by flow cytometry.
Inner controls utilizing unlabelled cells indicated that lonidamine and ATO autofluorescence was null in any respect assayed conditions Cell fractionation and immunoblot assays To get complete cellular protein extracts, cells were collected by centrifugation, washed with PBS, and lysed for min at C inside a buffer consisting of mM Tris HCl, pH containing mM NaCl, glycerol selleck chemical purchase Vemurafenib and Nonidet P , supplemented with a business protease inhibitor cocktail, mM sodium orthovanadate and mM NaF. Soon after centrifugation , the supernatants had been collected. Cytosolic extracts, aimed at figuring out cytochrome c and Omi HtrA release from mitochondria, have been obtained by cell permeabilization with digitonin, following the previously described process . The remaining membrane fraction was lysed with Laemmli?s buffer and employed as being a mitochondria enriched fraction to determine Bax translocation or cytochrome c remaining in mitochondria.
Zhou et al. signifies that loss of wildtype p perform in tumor cells might possibly contribute to upregulation of survivin and resistance to DNA damaging agents . Nonetheless, a former review demonstrates that XIAP down regulation and p accumulation are independent events ; XIAP depletion doesn’t alter p abundance, and ectopic expression of p won’t alter XIAP expression level. Even further evaluation on the possible roles of theXIAPand survivin aswell because the regulation ofXIAPand survivin expression in malignant cells could possibly be critically important to the development of new approaches for cancer treatment method. Therapy of Gefitinib inhibited cell proliferation. In accordance to our data , no vital distinction is detected for the Gefitinibtriggered cell development inhibition in cells with normal degree or knocked down p, implying p plays no function within the Gefitinib triggered anti cell proliferative impact, steady with studies elsewhere . Interestingly, these analyses indicate that unique mechanisms are employed tomediate Gefitinib induced cell apoptosis and inhibition of cell growth.
In conclusion, this examine demonstrates that p gets phosphorylated at Ser and transcriptionally activated in the course of Gefitinib therapy in human lung adenocarcinoma A cells. shRNA find out this here based inhibitory experiments give compelling proof for any part of p in Gefitinib induced tumor cell apoptosis. Although the underlined mechanism concerning the Gefitinib dependent p phosphorylation remains unknown, our present analyses with each other with former scientific studies reveal a plausible hypothesis centered with p, explaining how Gefitinib elicits cell apoptosis . p is phosphorylated and activated in the presence of Gefitinib, inducing the expression of proapoptotic proteins like Fas and PUMA, and imposing inhibitory results as a result of an unidentified mechanism for the expression of anti apoptosis molecules such as XIAP and Survivin. These days, Gefitinib is clinically used in treatment of quite a few several malignancies, its essential to screen p expression prior to Gefitinib is adopted as amajor medication for the cancer therapy.
The thioredoxin technique consisting of thioredoxin reductase, thioredoxin, and NADPH can be a crucial constituent in the intracellular redox milieu. Fisetin Thioredoxin reductase is known as a selenocysteine containing flavoprotein that largely catalyzes the NADPH dependent reduction of oxidized thioredoxin, that is a ubiquitous modest redox protein together with the conserved redox catalytic sequence Trp Cys Gly Pro Cys Lys . Like a cofactor, binding partner, protein reductant and cytokine like issue, thioredoxin performs many biological functions, which include the supply of decreasing equivalents to ribonucleotide reductases and peroxiredoxins , the regulation from the action of numerous transcription components , as well as the handle of apoptosis signal regulating kinase exercise .
This up regulation was also precise to Bcl xl, as we observed no changes during the ranges of other Bcl loved ones members, such as Mcl , Bak, ad Bax . To additional elucidate irrespective of whether HGF stimulates Bcl xl expression as a result of the MAP kinase pathway, we analyzed HGF stimulated Bcl xl promoter action within the presence or absence of particular inhibitors of MAP kinases. Pretreatment of cells with an MEK inhibitor was discovered to abrogate HGF stimulated Bcl xl promoter activity . In contrast, pretreatment with JNK inhibitor SB and p kinase inhibitor SB had no effect. HGF Enhances Bcl xl Expression by Getting rid of Repression by Tel on Bcl xl Promoter To determine whether or not Tel would repress bcl xl expression, Tel and galactosidase cDNA expression vectors had been transfected into H and I cells with high Bcl xl expression. As shown in Inhibitorsure A, Tel overexpression results in decreased Bcl xl expression in both cell lines following hours of transfection.
To investigate no matter if serum starvation could enhance the repressive perform of Tel on Bcl xl expression, we expressed Tel cDNAs in I cells beneath regular growth situations or below serum starvation conditions selleck chemical hop over to this website for and hours. Bcl xl expression was located to be considerably decreased during the serum starved I cells in comparison together with the I cells beneath usual development problem . To examine how HGF could possibly have an effect on Tel functions, we analyzed the amounts of phosphorylated Tel protein in I cells under situations of serum starvation or HGF stimulation by immune precipitation and Western blot analysis. Tel proteins were immunoprecipitated using Tel antibodies, and phosphorylation ranges had been detected implementing phosphor serine distinct antibodies. Whereas the complete Tel amounts remained precisely the same in these cells, the amounts of phosphorylated Tel were clearly elevated immediately after HGF stimulation . Following, we analyzed the affect of HGF on subcellular distribution of Tel.
As shown in Inhibitorsure D, minutes after HGF stimulation in serum starved I cells, Tel proteins showed improved cytoplasmic accumulation, whereas Tel even now remained in nuclear in serum starved cells. In addition, we analyzed the results of HGF on Tel binding to Bcl xl promoter Pimecrolimus using a CHIP assay. Compared together with the HGFstimulated samples, serum starvation resulted within a substantially improved PCR signal on the Bcl xl promoter from your precipitated chromatin . Taken together, our results indicate that HGF activates Bcl xl gene expression via negatively regulating repressive Tel perform by means of phosphorylation. Positive Correlation among the Bcl xl and c Met Expression Ranges in Major Mesothelioma Cells Offered the favourable association observed among Bcl xl and c Met expression in cell culture, we examined regardless if this kind of a romantic relationship existed in main human mesothelioma samples.
The reduction of potency from PDK to AKT is unclear; nevertheless, the Western blot data propose an substitute mode of activation for your AKT enzymes which may very well be driven from the mixture of both PDK mTOR or by a mechanism of AKT autophosphorylation and mTOR which was also proven to phosphorylate both residues, Thr and Ser. Beneath these circumstances, selective inhibition of PDK could only have a restricted effect for the rest on the AKT pathway. PF was also incubated with CHO cells to study the modulation of various biomarkers such as the translocation of PDK to your membrane, the translocation of Foxa towards the nucleus, along with the phosphorylation of Thr AKT. The research was carried out utilizing a high articles cell based assay. The activation of CHO cells by IGF demonstrates the migration of GFP PDK with the inner surface of the cellular membrane. Nonetheless, the migration of PDK on the membrane was prevented when the cells have been incubated in the presence of inhibitor.
A equivalent impact was observed with Foxa, which remained during the nucleus, suggesting that these compounds can negatively have an impact on the endogenous cellular screening compounds AKT action and reduce the phoshorylation of Foxa. Lastly and similarly to the function of Scheid et al GFP PDK seems to accumulate while in the nucleus; yet, the presence of PF during the media has constrained or no result within the localization of PDK inside the nucleus as illustrated in Inhibitors a and b. In conclusion, this examine investigated the mechanism of activation of PDK and AKT within the presence of TDA We showed that these artificial liposomes boost the PDK action and may very well be utilized in a pseudo in vitro cellular assay to review the activation and or inhibition with the kinases from the PIK AKT pathway. A brand new class of potent inhibitors of PDK was also investigated making use of two biochemical assay formats and our experimental data showed that addition with the nickel chelating liposomes is ideal for assaying kinase signaling pathway in the presence of inhibitors.
Lastly, the result of this compound was also investigated in the cellular environment for the modulation of quite a few biomarkers this kind of because the translocation of PDK towards the membrane, the translocation of Foxa during the nucleus, and the phosphorylation of Thr AKT. Activation Screening Library of protein kinases is tightly regulated in signal transduction. Aberrantly regulated kinases underlie several human disorders, such as cancer and inflammatory ailments . In their activated states, all kinases adopt a virtually identical conformation that is compatible with adenosine triphosphate and substrate binding and enzyme catalysis. Having said that, inside their inactive state, distinctive kinases occupy a variety of distinct distorted conformations that happen to be not compatible with catalysis .
In our experiments, BAX developed mitochondrial depolarization and huge amplitude swelling of organelles, both standard features with the mPT . These effects of BAX were sensitive to mPT inhibitors. Determined by these observations, we concluded that BAX induced mPT in isolated brain mitochondria. Because these experiments had been performed while in the absence of Ca , we concluded that BAX induced mPT was Ca independent. An inhibition with the mPT strongly attenuated cytochrome c release induced by BAX in our experiments. As a result, induction of your mPT and mitochondrial remodeling appeared to be critical for BAXinduced cytochrome c release. One of the most simple model posits the mPT linked mitochondrial swelling as a mechanismof rupture of the OMM, resulting in escape of cytochrome c from your intermembrane area . In our experiments, Ca also induced swelling of brain mitochondria, but failed to release cytochrome c. It truly is conceivable that underneath these experimental conditions Ca induced swelling was inadequate to rupture the OMM. Contrariwise, BAX made mitochondrial swelling similar to Ca , but resulted inside a total cytochrome c release.
This recommended either a larger amplitude of swelling or an additional, extra particular mechanism of OMM permeabilization, independent from swelling. Because TEM photos of BAX and Ca treated mitochondria appear strikingly comparable, the latter explanation looks much more possible. If BAX can permeabilize the OMM independently from swelling, then, the subsequent question is how could an inhibition from the mPT and suppression of swelling diminish the release of cytochrome full report c A single plausible explanation consists inside the assumption that BAX induces mPT dependent remodeling of mitochondria, manifested in unfolding of mitochondrial cristae, supplying opening on the closed spaces constrained by cristae and, hence, facilitating escape of cytochrome c. This could be much better understood by keeping in thoughts that intra cristae areas may incorporate as much as with the total cytochrome c, whereas only about is contained inside the intermembrane area . Hence, by wrapping matrix regions, cristae could restrict totally free diffusion of cytochrome c.
This hypothesis was proposed earlier for interaction of tBID with isolated liver mitochondria . Within this examine, tBID brought about distinct mitochondrial remodeling, which Tanshinone IIA may be attenuated by CsA and for this reason linked to your mPT . Interestingly, tBID utilized to mouse liver mitochondria led to a prevalent appearance of mitochondria with tubular cristae much like these observed in our experiments with BAX and mPT inhibitors. In our experiments, almost all of the brain mitochondria taken care of with BAX in the absence of mPT inhibitors appeared for being swollen and only a couple of had tubular cristae. Its conceivable that in our experiments an inhibition of the mPT stopped mitochondrial remodeling on the intermediate stage characterized by tubular cristae.
To test if these effects of phenformin have been evident in proliferating cells which are most typically used in scientific studies of AMPK, we employed one other neuronal model system, proliferating human neuroblastoma SH SYY cells. The responses to phenformin were a good deal slower in SH SYY cells than in differentiated hippocampal neurons. Therapy with mM phenformin increased the phosphorylation of ACC after h and it remained remarkably phosphorylated for h though with some diminution in intensity in the longer treatment occasions . A equivalent, however weaker, boost in phospho Thr AMPK also occurred immediately after phenformin treatment method, whereas the total protein level ofAMPK remained continual. These success confirm that phenformin treatment brought on a long lasting activation of AMPK in SH SYY cells. Considerable reductions in the phosphorylation of Akt on each Ser and Thr have been evident after phenformin treatment in the time dependent manner . Matching the lowered phosphorylation of Akt, the phosphorylation of Ser GSKb and Ser GSKa had been considerably lowered following therapy with phenformin .
The tyrosine phosphorylated and total protein ranges of GSKb and GSKa at first were unchanged before diminishing soon after selleck chemical Proteasome Inhibitor h of remedy. To check if phenformin decreased Akt phosphorylation by inhibiting intracellular signaling top rated to its activation, the phosphorylation of Akt induced by IGF was examined. IGF stimulates receptors coupled to activation of PIK which produces phosphoinositides that activate kinases responsible for mediating the activation linked phosphorylation of Akt on Thr and Ser. Differentiated hippocampal neurons that had been preincubated in B cost-free media to reduce basal Akt phosphorylation have been stimulated with IGF with or with no a h pretreatment with mM phenformin. IGF remedy induced a quick and sustained enhance while in the ranges of phospho Ser Akt and phospho Thr Akt in control differentiated hippocampal neurons . Having said that, pretreatment with phenformin greatly diminished the phosphorylation of Akt induced by IGF treatment. The impact of phenformin on Akt phosphorylation induced by IGF also was tested in SH SYY cells that had been preincubated in serum absolutely free media.
IGF therapy triggered a quick enhance while in the ranges of phospho Ser Akt and phospho Thr Akt , and phenformin pretreatment largely blocked IGF induced phosphorylation of Akt at the two online websites . These outcomes show that treatment with phenformin inhibits development component induced phosphorylation of Akt. To test if AMPK activation by phenformin was accountable for the dephosphorylation of selleckchem special info Akt and GSK, cellswere taken care of with the selective AMPK inhibitor Compound C . For these experiments, differentiated hippocampal neurons have been treated by using a greater concentration of Compound C than the generally made use of mM concentrations because in preliminary concentration response experiments the lower concentrations of Compound C only slightly inhibited AMPK in these cells .