Additionally, find more calcium supplementation has been shown to promote fat metabolism and help manage body composition [292, 294]. Calcium supplementation provides no ergogenic effect on exercise performance. Chromium Males 35 mcg/d Females 25 mcg/d (ages 19-50) Chromium, commonly sold as chromium picolinate, has been marketed with claims that the supplement will increase lean body mass and decrease body fat levels. Animal research indicates that chromium supplementation increases lean body mass and reduces body fat. Early research on humans reported similar results , however, more recent well-controlled studies
reported that chromium supplementation (200 to 800 mcg/d) does not improve lean body mass or reduce body fat [176, 180]. Iron Males 8 mg/d Females 18 mg/d (age 19-50) Iron supplements are used to increase aerobic performance in sports that use the oxygen
system. Iron is a component of hemoglobin in the red blood cell, which is a carrier of oxygen. Most research shows that iron supplements do not appear to improve aerobic performance unless LY2874455 in vitro the athlete is Selleckchem NVP-BGJ398 iron-depleted and/or has anemia . Magnesium Males 420 Females 320 Activates enzymes involved in protein synthesis. Involved in ATP reactions. Serum levels decrease with exercise. Some suggest that magnesium supplementation may improve energy metabolism/ATP availability. Most well-controlled research indicates that magnesium supplementation (500 mg/d) does not affect exercise performance in athletes unless there is a deficiency [503, 504]. Phosphorus (phosphate salts) 700 mg/d Phosphate has been studied for its ability to improve all three energy systems, primarily Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) the oxygen system or aerobic capacity. Recent well-controlled research studies reported that sodium phosphate supplementation (4 g/d for 3 d) improved the oxygen energy system in endurance tasks [400–402]. There appears to be little ergogenic value
of other forms of phosphate (i.e., calcium phosphate, potassium phosphate). More research is needed to determine the mechanism for improvement. Potassium 2000 mg/d* An electrolyte that helps regulate fluid balance, nerve transmission, and acid-base balance. Some suggest excessive increases or decreases in potassium may predispose athletes to cramping. Although potassium loss during intense exercise in the heat has been anecdotally associated with muscle cramping, the etiology of cramping is unknown [505, 506]. It is unclear whether potassium supplementation in athletes decreases the incidence of muscle cramping . No ergogenic effects reported. Selenium 55 mcg/d Marketed as a supplement to increase aerobic exercise performance. Working closely with vitamin E and glutathione peroxidase (an antioxidant), selenium may destroy destructive free radical production of lipids during aerobic exercise.