Results: Seven patients presented with acute otomastoiditis with

Results: Seven patients presented with acute otomastoiditis with sigmoid sinus thrombosis. Six patients were treated with anticoagulation for 1.5-12 months. Six patients underwent

myringotomy with tube and 4 patients underwent cortical mastoidectomy without thrombectomy. Six patients had resolution of thrombosis by imaging in less than 6 months. Literature review of 19 pts with OLST showed that 95% had mastoidectomy and 84% had myrigotomy with tube. All 19 patients received anticoagulation. Sixteen patients had complete clinical recovery with recanalization or resolution of clot in 3 patients.

Conclusions: The treatment of OLST is controversial. Most (23/26) patients had complete clinical recovery despite clot resolution in 9 of the 26 patients. Four patients S63845 in vivo had bleeding complication with anticoagulation. This series and literature review highlights the controversy of surgery and use of anticoagulation in the treatment of OLST

and the need for further investigation. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Fenofibrate is more effective drug as compared to other fibrates. But low bioavailability of it is due to its poor aqueous solubility. The purpose of present study was to improve fenofibrate dissolution through its formulation into liquisolid tablets and then to investigate in vitro performance of prepared liquisolid systems. By use of this technique, liquid medications such as solutions or suspensions of water insoluble drugs in suitable non-volatile liquid vehicles can be easily converted learn more into powders with acceptable flow properties and compression behavior by using suitable powder excipients. X-ray powder diffraction and Differential Scanning Calorimetry were used for

evaluation of physicochemical properties of Fenofibrate in liquisolid tablets. Stereomicroscopy was used to assess morphological characteristics of liquisolid formulation. Enhanced drug release profiles due to increased wetting properties and surface of drug available SRT2104 for dissolution was obtained in case of liquisolid tablets.”
“Historical control data of tumor incidence were collected from the control groups (215 animals of each sex) in four recent carcinogenicity studies that were started between 2005 to 2009 (terminally sacrificed between 2007 and 2011) at BoZo Research Center Inc. (Gotemba, Shizuoka, Japan) using Fischer 344 rats (F344/DuCrlCrlj). These data were compared to the previous historical control data (from 1990 to 2004, previously reported) in the same facility. In the results, the incidence of C-cell adenoma in the thyroid tended to increase in both sexes in recent years (30.8% for males and 24.4% for females in 2005-2009) as compared with the previous data (17.4% and 20.1% for males and 11.5% and 11.8% for females in 1990-1999 and 2000-2004, respectively).

An initial 1-2 months of INH treatment followed by chemoprophylax

An initial 1-2 months of INH treatment followed by chemoprophylaxis for 9 months is suggested for children with a TST of > 10 mm.”

alpha-methylstyrene and acrylonitrile (MStAN) copolymer particles in a latex form were synthesized by free radical emulsion polymerization. The particles took a spherical shape with an average size of 53.1 nm in a narrow distribution. When filled into styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), and natural rubber (NR), the MStAN nanoparticles exhibited excellent reinforcing capabilities and the best in NBR. By the employment of heat treatment, mechanical selleck products properties of the MStAN-filled SBR composites had got remarkable further improvements. But mechanical properties, together with the morphology, of the MStAN-filled NBR composites, varied little after heat treatment, which, however, Angiogenesis inhibitor divulged the naturally good compatibility between the MStAN particles and the NBR matrix. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 2459-2467, 2011″
“Congenital cystic lesions of the lung are uncommon and a conjunction of two or more lesions is very rare. We report here on a case of coexisting

intrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation in a 13-year-old female with a cystic mass in the right upper lobe of the lung. Computed tomography showed a cystic lesion measuring 2.5 cm with an air fluid level and surrounding multicystic lesions in the right upper lobe. On gross examination, the cut surface showed this website a cystic mass containing inspissated mucinous material, and the cystic mass was surrounded by multiple small cysts. Microscopically, the larger cystic cavity was lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. The submucosal tissue contained mucinous glands and plates of cartilage. The surrounding smaller cysts or irregular spaces were lined with bronchiolar-type respiratory epithelium. We propose that this hybrid lung lesion may represent the missing link in a common embryologic pathway determined

by the timing of mesenchymal and epithelial interactions.”
“Several studies provided evidence for generalized hyperalgesia in fibromyalgia or whiplash-associated disorders. In chronic fatigue syndrome, however, pain is a frequently reported complaint, but up to now, evidence for generalized hyperalgesia is lacking. The aim of this study is to examine whether the pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at both symptomatic and asymptomatic sites differ in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients with chronic pain, compared to healthy controls. Therefore, 30 CFS patients with chronic pain and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls indicated on a Margolis Pain Diagram where they felt pain lasting longer than 24 h in the past 4 weeks.

There is no subgroup division The reliability of injury types (A

There is no subgroup division. The reliability of injury types (A, B, C) was good (kappa = 0.77). The surgeons’ pairwise Kappa ranged from 0.69 to 0.90. Kappa coefficients kappa for reliability of injury subtypes ranged from 0.26 to 0.78.

The proposed TL spine injury system is based on clinically GSK2126458 relevant parameters. Final evaluation data showed reasonable reliability and accuracy. Further validation of the proposed revised AO Classification requires

follow-up evaluation sessions and documentation by more surgeons from different countries and backgrounds and is subject to modification based on clinical parameters during subsequent phases.”
“A sensitive and simple liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method for determination of ketamine in rabbit plasma using one-step protein precipitation was developed and validated. After addition of methadone as internal standard (IS), protein precipitation Quizartinib order by acetonitrile was used as sample preparation. Chromatographically separation was achieved on an SB-C18 (2.1 mm x 50 mm, 3.5 mu m) column with methanol-0.1 % formic acid as the mobile phase with gradient elution. Electrospray

ionization (ESI) source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used to quantification using target fragment ions m/z 237.7 -> 219.7 for ketamine and m/z 309.9 -> 264.8 for the IS. Calibration plots were linear over the range of 5-1000 ng/mL for ketamine in rabbit plasma. Lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for ketamine was 5 ng/mL. Mean recovery of ketamine from plasma was in the range of 97.5-100.1 %. RSD of intra-day and inter-day precision were both less than 11 %. This method is simple and sensitive enough to be used in pharmacokinetic research for determination of ketamine in rabbit plasma.”

study was designed to evaluate the effects of high-carbohydrate (HC) or high-fat (HF) diet with hydroxycitric acid (HCA)-containing Garcinia cambogia in rats. Seventy male Sprague-Dawley rats find more were randomly divided into 7 groups and raised with experimental diets containing different HCA levels (0, 1.6, and 3.2%) and calorie sources (carbohydrate, fat) for 8 weeks. Energy intake was significantly reduced in rats fed a HC diet with HCA compared to the HC diet without HCA. Body weight gain was significantly reduced in HCA groups. In the diet groups, plasma total lipid and triglyceride (TG) levels of the HCA groups were significantly lower than those of die group without HCA. There were no significant differences in energy intake and plasma lipid profile in HF groups. These results suggest that HC diet with HCA was more effective in the reduction of energy intake, body weight gain, and plasma lipid contents than those of HF diet with HCA.

136-4 609) and D allele (OR: D vs I: 2 0528, 95% CI: 1 3632-3 09

136-4.609) and D allele (OR: D vs. I: 2.0528, 95% CI: 1.3632-3.0912, p = 0.001) while no significant risk was obtained for HSP in the subjects both with the MT + TT genotype (p = 0.312, OR: 1.3905, 95% CI: 0.7326-2.6391) and T allele (OR: T vs. M: 1.065, 95% CI: 0.729-1.557, p = 0.743). Furthermore, when patients were stratified by the presence of certain systemic complications of HSP, no significant association was detected with ACE I/D, and AGT M235T polymorphisms. Our findings suggest that ACE I/D polymorphism is significantly selleck kinase inhibitor associated with HSP susceptibility.”
“Background: Recently developed Sybr Green-based in vitro Plasmodium falciparum drug sensitivity

assays provide an attractive alternative to current manual and automated methods. The present study evaluated flow cytometry measurement of DNA staining with Sybr Green in comparison with the P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase assay, the tritiated hypoxanthine incorporation assay, a previously described Sybr Green based plate reader assay and light microscopy.

Methods: All assays were set up in standardized format in 96-well plates. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of chloroquine, mefloquine and dihydroartemisinin against the laboratory adapted P. falciparum strains 3D7, E8B, W2mef and Dd2 were determined using each method.

Results: Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor The resolution achieved

by flow cytometry allowed quantification of the increase in individual cell DNA content after an incubation period of only 24 h. Regression, and Bland and Altman analyses showed that the IC(50) values determined using the flow cytometry assay after 24 h agreed well with those obtained using the hypoxanthine incorporation assay, the P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase assay, the Sybr Green plate reader assay and light microscopy. However the values obtained with the flow cytometry assay

after 48 h of incubation differed significantly from those obtained with the hypoxanthine incorporation assay, and the P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase assay at low IC(50) values, but agreed well with the Sybr Green plate reader assay and light microscopy.

Conclusions: Although flow cytometric equipment is expensive, the necessary reagents are inexpensive, the procedure is simple and rapid, and the cell volume required is minimal. This should allow field studies using IWR-1-endo fingerprick sample volumes.”
“To evaluate the role of psoriasin, koebnerisin, interleukn (IL)-12 and IL-23 in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and their relations to Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) and obesity. Thirty patients had chronic plaque psoriasis and 30 healthy subjects matched in age and sex were enrolled in this study. Serum from all subjects were used for determination of psoriasin, koebnerisin, IL-12 and IL-23 by ELISA kits. IL-23 and psoriasin were significantly higher in skin psoriasis compared to controls and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). There was a correlation between psoriasin and both PASI and obesity.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggested that potassi

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggested that potassium bromide is not an appropriate choice for treatment of every dog with seizures and that practitioners should tailor therapeutic regimens and clinical monitoring to each OICR-9429 dog. Abrupt dietary changes or fluid therapy may compromise seizure control or increase the likelihood of adverse events. Availability of an appropriately labeled, approved potassium bromide product could provide better assurance

for veterinarians and their clients of the quality, safety, and effectiveness of the product for veterinary use. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;240:705-715)”
“Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer (Elvaloy 1330) was irradiated by an electron beam at different levels of radiation both in the presence and absence of a trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate sensitizer at various dosages of incorporation. CA4P cell line The mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of these samples were compared. The mechanical properties were observed to reach an optimum maximum around 6 Mrad of irradiation and 1 phr of sensitizer incorporation.

Furthermore, an increase in either the radiation dose or the sensitizer level helped very little to further modify the properties. The thermal properties as determined by the thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry Studies were quite Supportive of the observation made during the study of the mechanical properties. The thermal stability of the irradiated samples underwent an increase with increasing electron-beam dosage. In a manner similar to those of the mechanical properties, the increase in thermal stability was found to reach a maximum

at a particular level of treatment and sensitizer incorporation, beyond which there was marginal or no effect at all. The a transition temperature underwent a Substantial increase with increasing crosslink density, as evidenced by the increase in gel content with increasing proportion of electron-beam radiation dose. The other glass-transition temperature, however, appeared to remain unaffected. The electrical properties, VX-770 cost as described by the dielectric constant, volume resistivity, and breakdown voltage, appeared to be affected very little by the electron-beam radiation. (C) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 112:28-35, 2009″
“In this paper we experimentally investigated the birefringence and absorption coefficients of alpha barium borate (alpha-BBO) crystal in the range of 0.3-10 THz by using a broadband air photonic terahertz time-domain spectrometer in both transmission and reflection modes. Several phonon modes were observed for o and e beams. The highest phonon mode at 6.8 THz has absorption coefficient of 1000 cm(-1).

Furthermore, silencing TIEG2 using RNAi significantly reduces GAP

Furthermore, silencing TIEG2 using RNAi significantly reduces GAPDH-induced MAO B upregulation and neurotoxicity. In summary, ethanol-induced cell death, attenuated by MAO B inhibitors, may result from disrupting the movement of GAPDH with the transcriptional activator into the nucleus and secondly inhibit MAO B gene expression. Thus, the neuroprotective effects of rasagiline or 1-R-aminoindan on ethanol-induced cell PHA-848125 mw death mediated by a novel GAPDH-MAO B pathway may provide a new insight in the treatment of neurobiological diseases including alcohol-use disorders.”
“Objective Suffering frequently occurs in the context of chronic and progressive medical

illnesses and emerges with great intensity at end-of-life. A review of the literature on suffering and distress-related factors was conducted to illustrate the integrative nature of suffering in this context. We hope it will result in a comprehensive approach, centered in the patient-family unit, which will alleviate or eliminate unnecessary suffering and provide well-being, when possible. Methods An extensive search of the literature on suffering and distress in end-of-life patients was conducted. While the present review is not a systematic

one, an in-depth search using Selleckchem Bucladesine the terms Suffering, Distress, End-of-Life’, Palliative Care, and Terminal illness was conducted using search engines such as PubMed, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EBSCO-Host, OVID, and SciELO. Results Taking into account the comprehensive and integrative nature of suffering, factors related to the physical, psychological, spiritual,

and social human dimensions are described. As well, some treatment considerations in the palliative care context are briefly discussed. Conclusions Suffering is individual, unique, and inherent to each person. Assessment processes require keeping in mind the complexity, multi-dimensionality, and subjectivity of symptoms and experiences. Optimal palliative care is based on continuous and multidimensional evaluation and treatment of symptoms and syndromes. It should take place in a clinical context where the psychological, spiritual, and socio-cultural needs of the patient-family ACY-738 mw unit are taken care of simultaneously. A deep knowledge of the nature of suffering and its associated factors is central to alleviate unnecessary suffering. Copyright (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“We have observed the exchange spring behavior in the soft (Fe3O4)-hard (BaCa2Fe16O27)-ferrite composite by tailoring the particle size of the individual phases and by suitable thermal treatment of the composite. The magnetization curve for the nanocomposite heated at 800 degrees C shows a single loop hysteresis showing the existence of the exchange spring phenomena in the composite and an enhancement of 13% in (BH)(max) compared to the parent hard ferrite (BaCa2Fe16O27).


changing the scan velocity and the fluence of the femt


changing the scan velocity and the fluence of the femtosecond laser, the formation of the PL band between the orange (600 nm) and red bands (near 680 nm) could be controlled. The red band PL from the photoinduced microstructures on the black silicon was observed even without annealing due to the thermal accumulation of high-repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses. The orange band PL was easily quenched under 532 nm cw laser irradiation, whereas the red band PL was more stable; this can be attributed to “”defect Caspase inhibitor luminescence”" and “”quantum confinement”", respectively. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3641976]“
“. Entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate TH-302 solubility dmso (TDF) are potent nucleos(t)ide

analogues (NUCs) recommended as first-line monotherapies for chronic hepatitis B. In Phase III trials, ETV and TDF demonstrated superior efficacy, and comparable safety compared with other NUCs. In long-term clinical studies, both drugs achieved virologic response rates of around 95%, with very low rates of resistance development and good safety profiles. Clinical trials are conducted under standardized conditions with strict enrolment criteria that limit the heterogeneity of study populations. Real-life populations tend to be composed of a wider range of patients, often older and with different morbidities, comorbidities that may impact treatment efficacy and co-factors, such as smoking and alcohol intake, which can have a direct impact on disease progression. Real-life studies provide better representations of everyday clinical practice and are important to confirm the results reported in clinical studies and to identify rare or late-emerging adverse events. In five real-life studies of ETV in more than 1000 patients, up to 4 years of treatment resulted in virologic responses in 7696% of patients. Two real-life studies of TDF reported response rates of 7192% after up to 21 months of treatment. Low incidences of drug resistance and favourable tolerabilities were reported for both

drugs, thus confirming the results from registration trials.”
“Background: Experimental and observational studies have suggested that folate may play dual roles in colorectal cancer risk depending on the timing and β-Nicotinamide molecular weight dose.

Objective: We examined the latency between folate intake and the incidence of colorectal cancer.

Design: We prospectively examined associations between folate intake assessed every 2 to 4 y by using validated food-frequency questionnaires and risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma in the Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, which included 2299 incident colorectal cancers and 5655 colorectal adenomas from 1980 to 2004.

Results: There was an association between total folate intake 12-16 y before diagnosis and lower risk of colorectal cancer (relative risk: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.

Many of these screens have been performed using carotenoid-defici

Many of these screens have been performed using carotenoid-deficient plants grown in the presence of norflurazon (NF), an inhibitor of phytoene desaturase. NF-treated plants

are bleached and suppress the expression of nuclear genes encoding chloroplast proteins. Several genomes uncoupled (gun) mutants have been isolated that de-repress the expression of these nuclear genes. In the present study, a genetic screen has been established that circumvents severe photo-oxidative stress in NF-treated plants. Under these modified screening conditions, happy on norflurazon selleck chemicals llc (hon) mutants have been identified that, like gun mutants, de-repress expression of the Lhcb gene, encoding a light-harvesting chlorophyll protein, but, in contrast to wild-type and gun mutants, are green in the presence of NF. hon mutations

disturb plastid protein homeostasis, thereby activating plastid signaling and inducing stress acclimatization. Rather than defining constituents of a retrograde signaling pathway specifically associated with the NF-induced suppression of nuclear gene expression, as proposed for gun, hon mutations affect Lhcb expression more indirectly prior to initiation of plastid signaling in NF-treated seedlings. They pre-condition seedlings by inducing stress acclimatization, thereby attenuating the impact of a subsequent NF treatment.”
“In developing new insulin-mimetic vanadyl complexes with various ligands including biodegradable polymers, we prepared and characterized three VO(gamma-pga) complexes in solution and evaluated their in vitro insulin-mimetic activities and in vivo anti-diabetic effects in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 like diabetic mice (STZ-mice). All three VO(gamma-pga) complexes normalized the hyperglycemia in STZ-mice within 14 d when administered orally at find more doses of 10 mg V kg(-1) body mass for 28 d. In addition, the impaired glucose tolerance, elevated HbA(1c) levels and metabolic syndromes were significantly improved in VO(gamma-pga) complexes-treated STZ-mice relative to those administrated with saline and VS. Vanadium was distributed in the tissues examined in the following decreasing order: bones, liver, muscles, spleen, heart, kidneys, brain, lungs and pancreas. VO(gamma-pga) complexes in which gamma-pga having average molecular weight 480 – 4700 kDa are promising oral therapeutic agents for the treatment of type 1 diabetic animals.”
“In the present paper, a fast and economical HPLC method [on a Phenomenex Polar-RP column with a solution of (phosphoric acid:triethylamine:dibutylamine:water = 0.40:0.1:0.2:499.3) and methanol] is developed, and applied for the determination of norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, ephedrine (E), pseudoephedrine (PE) and methylephedrine (ME) in 64 samples of three species from main habitats in China. Quantitation data showed that total alkaloid content in Ephedra equisetina Bge. (2.708 +/- A 0.

2, 8 girls and 2 boys) and 10 age-matched healthy controls The a

2, 8 girls and 2 boys) and 10 age-matched healthy controls. The average Cobb angle of the primary curve in the IS patients was 35A degrees (range 27A degrees-55A degrees). All participants underwent a block-design fMRI experiment in a 1.5-Tesla MRI scanner to explore cortical activation following a simple motor task. Rest periods alternated with activation periods during

which participants were required to open and close their hand at an internally paced rate of approximately 1 Hz. Data were analyzed with Statistical Selleck GANT61 Parametric Mapping (SPM5) including age, sex and laterality as nuisance variables to minimise the presence of bias in the results. Compared to controls, IS patients showed significant increases in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activity in contralateral supplementary motor area when performing the motor task with either hand. No significant differences were observed when testing

between groups in the functional activation in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex and somatosensory cortex. Additionally, the IS group showed a greater interhemispheric asymmetry index than the control group (0.30 vs. 0.13, p < 0.001). This study demonstrates an abnormal pattern of brain activation in secondary motor areas during movement execution in patients with IS. These findings support the hypothesis that a sensorimotor integration disorder underlies the pathogenesis of IS.”
“Obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome is characterized by repeated airway collapse during sleep. The literature describes multiple causes of the disease. The main cause is a reduction of the expansion forces of the MEK162 cost pharyngeal dilator muscles, as in situations of genioglossal muscle dysfunction, and discoordination between the inspiratory activity of the muscle and respiratory effort, which play an important role in progression of the disease.

Other described causes are soft tissue disorders, such as macroglossia or tonsillar hypertrophy, and skeletal structural alterations such as micrognathia and retrognathia. The syndrome is also more frequent in obese people, where the accumulation of fat in the neck region produces narrowing of the pharyngeal airway, thereby

diminishing the passage of air.

This review focuses on the pathogenesis, epidemiology, main features and diagnosis of the disease, and on its main forms of treatment.”
“Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective treatment for morbid obesity. However, it may lead to diseases of the bilio-pancreatic tract. We evaluated transgastric endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for managing common biliary tract diseases in patients that underwent RYGB treatment for obesity. This prospective study was conducted between 2003 and 2010 at three medical institutions. We included 23 patients with a mean body mass index of 28.2 kg/m(2) after RYGB treatment. ERCP was performed in all patients to manage biliary tract diseases within 9 to 27 months (mean 16.

001) lower FEV(1) or FVC compared to those with less deformity A

001) lower FEV(1) or FVC compared to those with less deformity. Axial plane deformity did not correlate with PFT impairment. Juvenile-onset patients had greater PFT impairment than AIS patients, along with slightly larger MT curves. Patients who were braced before surgery had worse PFTs than those had no treatment before surgery.

Conclusion. Preoperative PFTs

are clinically impaired in 19% of AIS patients, and correlate significantly with the MT and sagittal plane deformity severity, and with PT curve severity to a lesser degree. PFTs do not correlate with degree of axial deformity. From a purely pulmonary standpoint, attention directed to coronal and sagittal plane deformity correction appears warranted, to address buy HSP990 the specific deformities which are associated with PFT impairment.”
“The pen shell, Atrina pectinata, is a commercially important bivalve species, widely consumed in

the Asian Pacific region. We identified 16 new microsatellite makers for A. pectinata using a modified fast isolation by AFLP of sequences containing repeat protocols; 27 individuals were collected from Xiamen to evaluate the degree of AZ 628 mouse polymorphism. The number of polymorphic alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 11. The observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.050-0.913 and 0.049-0.869, respectively. The loci identified in this study could provide a useful tool for research on genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of A. pectinata populations.”
“Study Design. Prospective case series.

Objective. To evaluate the clinical and radiologic outcomes of short segment anterior scoliosis surgery with bone-on-bone apposition using a dual screw, dual rod


Summary of Background Data. Posterior Bromosporine datasheet segmental fixation for correction of AIS involves instrumentation of all the vertebrae included in the major curve. Our short segment anterior technique produces similar results by fusion of fewer levels.

Methods. Forty-five patients operated between 1996 and 2004. Twenty-eight thoracic (Lenke 1) and 17 thoracolumbar (Lenke 5). The mean age was 19 years, 87% were females, and the mean follow-up was 72 months (range 28-121 months). We operated on curves less than 85 with “”total discectomy,”" bone-on-bone apposition, and dual-screw, dual-rod fixation.

Results. A mean of five vertebrae (four discs) were instrumented, with a mean operative time of 360 minutes, blood loss of 877 mL and a hospital stay of 9.1 day.

Lenke 1. The main preop thoracic curve was 52.5 degrees, final postop curve 27.9 degrees, by fusing five vertebrae, four discs. A spontaneous improvement of 47.5% of the lumbar compensatory curve was seen. The lower tilt angle corrected from 20.9 degrees to 11 degrees.

Lenke 5. The preoperative thoracolumbar major curve corrected from 50.5 degrees to 18.3 degrees (final) with fusion of four vertebrae, three discs.