Moreover, Syk is involved in BCR-independent functions, such as B-cell migration and adhesion. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), Syk becomes activated by external signals
from the tissue microenvironment, and was targeted in a first clinical trial with R788 (fostamatinib), a relatively nonspecific Syk inhibitor. Here, we characterize the activity of two novel, highly selective Syk inhibitors, PRT318 and P505-15, in assays that model CLL interactions check details with the microenvironment. PRT318 and P505-15 effectively antagonize CLL cell survival after BCR triggering and in nurse-like cell-co-cultures. Moreover, they inhibit BCR-dependent secretion of the chemokines CCL3 and CCL4 by CLL cells, and leukemia cell migration toward the tissue homing chemokines CXCL12, CXCL13, and beneath stromal cells. PRT318 and P505-15 furthermore inhibit Syk and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation after BCR triggering. These findings demonstrate that the selective Syk inhibitors PRT318 and P505-15 are highly effective for inhibition of CLL survival and tissue homing circuits, and support the therapeutic development of these agents in patients with CLL, other B-cell malignancies and autoimmune disorders.”
“In transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) Linsitinib manufacturer pathogenesis the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is converted into its pathogenic PrP(Sc) isoform. Prion protein
gene (Prnp) deficient mice (PrP(0/0)) are resistant to PrP(Sc) infection, but following reconstitution of Prnp they regain their PF477736 mouse susceptibility to infection. Therefore, it is challenging to simulate this natural situation in a cell culture model. We have previously reported the inducible stable expression of a human PrP(C) in murine 3T3 cells. In this study, we used murine PrP(0/0) cells stably expressing exemplarily the chimpanzee Prnp under the control of inducible tetracycline Jet) system. The Prnp was integrated using a lentiviral vector. Its expression in the engineered
PrP(0/0)Chimp1/Tet-Off cell line was analyzed by Western blot (Wb) and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analyses. PrP(C) was partially purified by using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). Compared to all the other cell systems which possess an endogenous PrP(C) expression, here described cell line contains only an overexpressing species specific PrP(C) expression which is tightly regulated and can be turned-off at any time without showing any endogenous host PrP(C) expression. Consequently, a contamination of the isolated PrP(C) is impossible. This cell line potentially offers a new tool for simulation of mice bioassays widely used in TSE infection studies. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction: 4-[F-18]Fluorobenzylamine ([F-18]FBA) is an important building block for the synthesis of F-18-labeled compounds. Synthesis of [F-18]FBA usually involves application of strong reducing agents like LiAlH4 which is challenging to handle in automated synthesis units (ASUs).
We previously defined the presence of CD4bs-neutralizing antibodies in the serum of an HIV-1-infected individual and subsequently isolated the CD4bs-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) VRC01 and VRC03 from the memory B cell population. Since this donor’s LY2835219 serum also appeared to contain neutralizing antibodies to the CoRbs, we employed a differential fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS)-based sorting strategy using an Env trimer possessing a CoRbs knockout mutation (I420R) to isolate specific B cells. The MAb VRC06 was recovered from these cells, and its genetic sequence allowed us to identify a clonal
relative termed VRC06b, which was isolated from a prior cell sort using a resurfaced core gp120 probe and its cognate CD4bs knockout mutant. VRC06 and VRC06b neutralized 22% and 44% of selleck products viruses tested, respectively. Epitope mapping studies revealed that the two MAbs were sensitive to mutations in both the gp120 CoRbs and the CD4bs and could cross-block binding of both CD4bs and CoRbs MAbs to gp120. Fine mapping indicated contacts within the gp120 bridging sheet and the base of the third major variable region (V3), which are elements of the CoRbs. Cell surface binding assays demonstrated preferential recognition of fully cleaved Env trimers over uncleaved trimers.
Thus, VRC06 and VRC06b are Env trimer precursor cleavage-sensitive neutralizing MAbs that bind to a region of gp120 that overlaps both the primary and the secondary
HIV-1 receptor binding sites.”
“Autism and Asperger’s disorder (AD) are neurodevelopmental disorders primarily characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication, however motor coordination deficits are increasingly recognized as a prevalent feature of these conditions. Although it has been proposed that children with autism and AD selleckchem may have difficulty utilizing visual feedback during motor learning tasks, this has not been directly examined. Significantly, changes within the cerebellum, which is implicated in motor learning, are known to be more pronounced in autism compared to AD. We used the classic double-step saccade adaptation paradigm, known to depend on cerebellar integrity, to investigate differences in motor learning and the use of visual feedback in children aged 9-14 years with high-functioning autism (HFA; IQ > 80; n = 10) and AD (n = 13). Performance was compared to age and IQ matched typically developing children (n = 12). Both HFA and AD groups successfully adapted the gain of their saccades in response to perceived visual error, however the time course for adaptation was prolonged in the HFA group. While a shift in saccade dynamics typically occurs during adaptation, we revealed aberrant changes in both HFA and AD groups. This study contributes to a growing body of evidence centrally implicating the cerebellum in ocular motor dysfunction in autism.
05), in comparison with a control group of healthy subjects (n = 20, 21-60 years old, mean = 38.4). The alterations were confirmed by the calculation of triggered averages, which demonstrated increased coactivation of the DMN and the former regions. These findings demonstrate that CBP disrupts normal activity in the DMN even during the brain resting state, highlighting the impact of enduring pain over brain structure and function. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Inflammation can activate the complement system, which in turn enhances inflammation and aggravates secondary injury after spinal cord injury (SCI). As the three complement activation
AZD6738 nmr pathways converge at the cleavage of C3, we investigated whether inhibiting complement activation in C3-deficient mice would reduce secondary injury after SCI and improve axon regeneration. Weight-drop contusion injury (5
g, 6 cm) was created in wild-type or C3-deficient https://www.selleckchem.com/products/bay-57-1293.html mice. Astrocytes (ASTs) activation, TNF-alpha expression, and axon regeneration were investigated in vivo. In other studies, dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) were co-cultured with mechanically injured ASTs in vitro to evaluate effects on neurite outgrowth. Our results show that, after injury, C3-deficient mice exhibit higher BBB scores than wild-type mice. In addition, ASTs activation was inhibited. TNF-alpha https://www.selleck.cn/products/btsa1.html expression process was delayed in vivo and inhibited in vitro, and nerve fiber regeneration was improved in C3-deficient mice. DRGs co-cultured with mechanically injured ASTs from C3-deficient mice also showed improved neurite outgrowth. We conclude that C3 deficiency
can inhibit inflammation through suppressing ASTs activation and TNF-alpha expression, thereby reducing secondary injury and improving neural regeneration and functional recovery after SCI. The above results suggest that complement inhibition may be a potential therapy to promote central nervous system regeneration by targeting C3. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”
“Introduction: Endovascular treatment for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) was first performed >30 years ago and its use has increased rapidly since then. However, only recently have large randomized trials rigorously evaluated its clinical benefit.
Methods: We systematically reviewed the controlled studies on primary stenting for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. Studies were included if they compared the outcome of stenting with other treatments, or the outcome associated with different stent characteristics or stenting methods.
Results: Stenting is preferred over angioplasty alone and over surgery when revascularization is indicated for ostial ARAS, except in cases of coexistent aortic disease indicating surgery.
This envelope protein can utilize hAPJ as well as murine Xpr1 for entry into
host cells with equal efficiencies. In addition, the SL3-AP virus replicates in cells expressing either of its receptors, hAPJ and murine Xpr1, and causes resistance Selleckchem Veliparib to superinfection and downregulation of hAPJ in infected cells. Thus, SL3-AP is the first example of a retargeted replication-competent retrovirus, with replication characteristics and receptor interference properties similar to those of natural isolates.”
“The role of the basal ganglia-cortical motor loop in automatic and unconscious motor processes is poorly understood. Here, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging in 11 de nova Parkinson’s disease patients as they performed a visuomotor masked priming task. The stronger subliminal priming effect for the non-dominant side of motor symptoms than for the dominant side was paralleled by stronger supplementary motor area proper activity in response to lateralized visual stimuli presented below the threshold of awareness. This novel result supports the prediction that this area is involved in the automatic activation of motor
plans as a function of striatal dopamine levels. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Recently we demonstrated that genetic or pharmacological suppression of the central ghrelin signaling system, involving the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1A (GHS-R1A), lead to a reduced reward profile from alcohol. SC75741 manufacturer As the target circuits for ghrelin in the brain include a mesolimbic reward pathway that is intimately associated with reward-seeking behaviour, we sought to determine whether the central ghrelin signaling system is required for reward from drugs of abuse other H 89 clinical trial than alcohol, namely cocaine or amphetamine.
We found that amphetamine-as
well as cocaine-induced locomotor stimulation and accumbal dopamine release were reduced in mice treated with a GHS-R1A antagonist. Moreover, the ability of these drugs to condition a place preference was also attenuated by the GHS-R1A antagonist.
Thus GHS-R1A appears to be required not only for alcohol-induced reward, but also for reward induced by psychostimulant drugs. Our data suggest that the central ghrelin signaling system constitutes a novel potential target for treatment of addictive behaviours such as drug dependence.”
“The family Anelloviridae includes human and animal torque teno viruses (TTVs) with extensive genetic diversity. The antigenic diversity among anelloviruses has never been assessed. Using torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) as a model, we describe here the first investigation of the antigenic relationships among different anelloviruses.
84 for intraoperator reliability. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean (SD) maximal AAA diameter between elective (6.47 [1.30] cm) and acute (7.08 [1.39] cm) patients (P = .073). The difference in PWS between elective (0.67 [0.30] MPa) and acute (1.11 [0.51] MPa) patients (P = .008) was PR-171 price statistically significant, however.
Conclusion: Interoperator and intraoperator reliability in the derivation of PWS is acceptable. PWS, but not maximal diameter, was significantly higher in acute AAAs than in elective AAAs.”
of inhibition (DSI) or excitation (DSE) is a well-known form of endocannabinoid-mediated short-term plasticity that is induced by postsynaptic depolarization. It is generally accepted that DSI/DSE is triggered by Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated
Ca-2 divided by channels. It is also demonstrated that DSI/DSE is mediated by 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). However, how Ca2+ induces 2-AG production is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated molecular mechanisms underlying the Ca2+-driven 2-AG production. Using cannabinoid-sensitive inhibitory synapses of cultured hippocampal neurons, we tested several inhibitors for enzymes that are supposed to be involved in 2-AG metabolism. The chemicals we tested include inhibitors for phospholipase selleck compound C (U73122 and ET-18), diacylglycerol kinase (DGK inhibitor 1), phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (propranolol), and diacylglycerol lipase (DGL; RHC-80267 and tetrahydrolipstatin (THL)). However, unfavorable side effects were observed with these inhibitors, except for THL. Furthermore, we found that RHC-80267 hardly inhibited the endocannabinoid release driven by G(q/11)-coupled receptors, which is thought to be DGL-dependent. By contrast, THL exhibited no side effects as long as we tested, and was confirmed to inhibit the DGL-dependent process. Using THL as a DGL inhibitor, we demonstrated that DGL is involved in both hippocampal DSI and cerebellar DSE. To test a possible involvement of PLC delta in DSI, we examined hippocampal DSI in PLC delta 1,delta 3 and delta 4-knockout mice. However, there was no significant difference
in the DSI magnitude between these knockout mice and wildtype mice. The selleck kinase inhibitor present study clearly shows that DGL is a prerequisite for DSI/DSE. The enzymes yielding DG remain to be determined. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: This study evaluated (1) elective open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (OAR) in patients aged >= 80 years before and after stent graft devices for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) became commercially available and (2) the effect on perioperative (30-day) outcome of the anatomic constraints that led to EVAR being excluded for many of them.
Methods: A review was conducted on the records of 111 patients aged :80 years who underwent elective OAR during a 14-year period at the University of Padua School of Medicine.
With ZD1839 mouse economic boom and growing government revenues, China is unlike other countries challenged by health inequities and can afford the necessary reforms so that economic development goes hand-in-hand
with improved health equity. Reforms to improve health equity will receive immense popular support, governmental commitment, and interest from the public-health community worldwide.”
“Nutritional factors acting during brain development can permanently alter brain electro physiology. L-Arginine is the precursor of nitric oxide synthesis, which can modulate brain function Here we. investigated the effect of early-in-life administration (during postnatal days 7-28) Of L-Arginine (300 mg/(kg day)) on cortical spreading depression (CSD), recorded in well-nourished and malnourished (large litters technique) rats aged 30-40 days (young) and 90-110 days (adult). Compared to water-treated controls, well-nourished L-Arginine-treated rats, but not the malnourished ones, displayed higher CSD velocities (P < 0.05) at both ages. The mean +/- S.D. CSD velocities (in mm/min) were: for water- and L-Arginine well-nourished rats, 3.78 +/- 0.23 and 4.36 +/- 0.19 (young groups), and 3.28 +/- 0.16 and 4.09 +/- 0.30 (adult); for the same conditions in the malnourished rats, 4.22 +/- 0.09 and 4.27 +/-
0.21 (young), and 4.11 DihydrotestosteroneDHT +/- 0.18 and 4.21 +/- 0.33 (adult). L-Arginine treatment did not affect body and brain weights. It is concluded that early L-Arginine treatment long lastingly increased brain CSD-susceptibility and this effect is abolished by early malnutrition. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Multiple sclerosis is primarily an inflammatory disorder of the brain and spinal cord in which focal lymphocytic infiltration leads to damage of myelin
and axons. Initially, inflammation is transient and remyelination occurs but is not durable. Hence, the early course of disease is characterised by episodes of neurological dysfunction that usually recover. However, over Olopatadine time the pathological changes become dominated by widespread microglial activation associated with extensive and chronic neurodegeneration, the clinical correlate of which is progressive accumulation of disability. Paraclinical investigations show abnormalities that indicate the distribution of inflammatory lesions and axonal loss (MRI); interference of conduction in previously myelinated pathways (evoked electrophysiological potentials); and intrathecal synthesis of oligoclonal antibody (examination by lumbar puncture of the cerebrospinal fluid). Multiple sclerosis is triggered by environmental factors in individuals with complex genetic-risk profiles.
could have a role in NPC immunotherapy for all ethnic groups since it has the potential to activate all possible CD4 and CD8 responses within EBNA1 and LMPs.”
“Several genome scans on alcohol dependence (AD) and AD-related traits have been published. In this article, we present the results of a genome-wide linkage scan on AD and several related traits in 322 European-American (EA) families, and results of additional analysis in 335 African-American selleck kinase inhibitor (AA) families that were the subject of a previous report. All families were initially ascertained for cocaine and/or opioid dependence. Non-parametric linkage analysis in the EA sample revealed suggestive linkages on chromosomes 7 (LOD = 2.1 at 82.8 cM, p = 0.0009) and 10 (LOD = 3.0 at 137.7 cM, p = 0.0001). The chromosome 10 linkage peak is 20 cM distal from a genome-wide significant linkage peak we observed previously in the AA sample. Parametric linkage analysis on chromosome 10 (assuming a recessive model, 80% penetrance, disease allele frequency = 0.3) resulted in LOD scores of 2.7 at 136.7 selleck chemical cM and 1.9 at 121.7 cM in the EA and AA samples, respectively, with a combined
sample genome-wide significant LOD score of 4.1 at 131.7 cM. To reduce heterogeneity of the AD phenotype, we also assessed linkage of chromosome 10 markers with the presence of alcohol withdrawal symptoms, one of the seven components of the DSM-IV diagnosis of AD. Suggestive evidence for linkage was observed in both populations with only 5 cM separating the location of the peak LOD scores despite a loss of power due to a smaller number of families informative for this trait. Results of our study confirm a chromosome 10 risk locus for AD in two genetically distinct populations and suggest that this locus may correspond more precisely to a specific component of the disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology (2010) 35, 1325-1332; doi: 10.1038/npp.2010.1; published online 10 February 2010″
“It was shown previously that the highly conserved vaccinia
virus A35 gene is an important virulence heptaminol factor in respiratory infection of mice. We show here that A35 is also required for full virulence by the intraperitoneal route of infection. A virus mutant in which the A35 gene has been removed replicated normally and elicited improved antibody, gamma interferon-secreting cell, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses compared to wild-type virus, suggesting that A35 increases poxvirus virulence by immunomodulation. The enhanced immune response correlated with an improved control of viral titers in target organs after the development of the specific immune response. Finally, the A35 deletion mutant virus also provided protection from lethal challenge (1,000 50% lethal doses) equal to that of the wild-type virus.
We aim to determine if an objective evidence-based threshold of operative volume associated with improvement in operative outcome for esophageal resections can be defined.
Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed on patients undergoing esophageal resection for cancer in the 1998 to 2005 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. A series of multivariable analyses were performed, changing the resection volume cutoff to account for the
range of annual hospital resections. The goodness of fit of each model was compared by pseudo r(2), the amount of data variance explained by each model.
Results: A total of 4080 patients underwent esophageal resection. The median annual hospital Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor resection volume was 4 (range: 1-34). The mortality rate of “”high-volume” centers ranged from 9.94% (>= 2 resection/year) to 1.56%(>= 30 resections/year). The best model was with an annual hospital resection Blasticidin S ic50 volume greater than or equal to 15 (3.87% of data variance explained). The difference in goodness of fit between the best model and other models with different volume cutoffs was 0.64%, suggesting that volume explains less than 1% of variance in perioperative death.
data do not support the use of volume cutoffs for defining centers of excellence for esophageal cancer resections. Although volume has an incremental impact on mortality, volume alone is insufficient for defining centers of excellence. Volume seems to function as an imperfect surrogate for other variables, which may better define centers of excellence. Additional work is needed to identify these variables.”
“Ultrasonic vocalization at 55 kHz (55 kHz-USVs) by rodents has been proposed to be a behavioral manifestation of affectively positive incentive Teicoplanin motivation. To examine the extent to which 55 kHz-USV emissions correlate with cocaine-induced locomotor activity, we measured cocaine-induced 55 kHz-USVs and their relationship to cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization in rats. We demonstrate that similar to locomotor responses, 55 kHz-USVs are also sensitized by exposure to
cocaine. Furthermore, we show that the magnitude of cocaine-induced 55 kHz-USV sensitization is positively correlated with that of locomotor sensitization. Moreover, we demonstrate that rats selectively bred for high rates of 55 kHz-USVs exhibit higher levels of cocaine-induced 55 kHz-USV sensitization than animals selectively bred for low levels of 55 kHz USVs. These results suggest that the neural circuits underlying 55 kHz-USV, which may directly reflect affective experience/motivation, can be sensitized by cocaine in a way that resembles locomotor sensitization. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Widespread application of computed tomographic scans has increased detection of asymptomatic pulmonary nodules. A dedicated clinic was established to encourage referral and manage large numbers of patients with such nodules.
(C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Arenaviruses include several causative agents of hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans that are associated with high morbidity and significant mortality. Morbidity and lethality associated with HF arenaviruses are believed to involve the dysregulation of the host innate immune and inflammatory responses that leads to impaired development
of protective and efficient immunity. The molecular mechanisms underlying this dysregulation are not completely understood, but it is suggested that viral infection leads to disruption of early host defenses and contributes to arenavirus pathogenesis in humans. We demonstrate in the accompanying paper Staurosporine nmr that the prototype member in the family, lymphocytic choriomeningitis PU-H71 purchase virus (LCMV), disables the host innate defense by interfering with type I interferon (IFN-I) production through
inhibition of the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) activation pathway and that the viral nucleoprotein (NP) alone is responsible for this inhibitory effect (C. Pythoud, W. W. Rodrigo, G. Pasqual, S. Rothenberger, L. Martinez-Sobrido, J. C. de la Torre, and S. Kunz, J. Virol. 86:7728-7738, 2012). In this report, we show that LCMV-NP, as well as NPs encoded by representative members of both Old World (OW) and New World (NW) arenaviruses, also inhibits the nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B). Similar to the situation previously reported for IRF3, Tacaribe virus NP (TCRV-NP) does not inhibit NF-kappa B nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity to levels comparable to those seen with other members in the family. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that arenavirus infection inhibits NF-kappa B-dependent innate immune and inflammatory responses, possibly playing a key role in the pathogenesis and virulence of arenavirus.”
“Reelin is a glycoprotein that serves important roles both during development (regulation of neuronal migration and brain lamination) and
in adulthood (maintenance of synaptic function). A number of neuropsychiatric disorders including autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, over Alzheimer’s disease and lissencephaly share a common feature of abnormal Reelin expression in the brain. Altered Reelin expression has been hypothesized to impair neuronal connectivity and synaptic plasticity, leading ultimately to the cognitive deficits present in these disorders. The mechanisms for abnormal Reelin expression in some of these disorders are currently unknown although possible explanations include early developmental insults, mutations, hypermethylation of the promoter for the Reelin gene (RELN), miRNA silencing of Reelin mRNA, FMRP underexpression and Reelin processing abnormalities.
AC-260584 also improved the cognitive performance of mice in the novel object recognition assay and its action is blocked by the muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine. Taken www.selleckchem.com/products/nutlin-3a.html together these results indicate for the first time that a M-1 receptor agonist selective over the other mAChR subtypes can have a symptomatically pro-cognitive action. In addition, AC-260584 was found to be orally bioavailable in rodents. Therefore, AC-260584 may serve as a lead compound in the development of M-1 selective drugs for the treatment of cognitive impairment associated
with schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We wanted to develop a therapeutic approach against rabies disease by targeting the lyssavirus transcription/replication complex. Because
this complex (nucleoprotein N-RNA template processed by the L polymerase and its cofactor, the phosphoprotein P) is similar to that of other negative-strand RNA viruses, we aimed to design broad-spectrum antiviral drugs that could be used as a complement to postexposure vaccination and immunotherapy. Recent progress in understanding the structure/function of the rabies virus P, N, and L proteins predicts that the amino-terminal end of P is an excellent target for destabilizing the replication complex because it interacts with both L (for positioning ABT-737 purchase onto the N-RNA template) and N (for keeping N soluble, as needed for viral RNA encapsidation). Thus, peptides mimicking various lengths of the amino-terminal end of P have been evaluated, as follows: (i) for binding properties to the N-P-L partners by the two-hybrid method; (ii) for their capacity to inhibit the transcription/replication of a rabies virus minigenome encoding luciferase in BHK-21-T7 cells; and (iii) for their capacity to inhibit rabies virus infection of BHK-21-T7 cells and of two derivatives of the neuronal SK-N-SH cell line. Peptides P60 and P57 (the first 60 and first 57 NH(2) residues of P, respectively) exhibited a rapid, strong, and long-lasting inhibitory potential on luciferase expression (>95% from 24 h to 55
h). P42 was less efficient in its inhibition Bambuterol HCl level (75% for 18 to 30 h) and duration (40% after 48 h). The most promising peptides were synthesized in tandem with the Tat sequence, allowing cell penetration. Their inhibitory effects were observed on BHK-21-T7 cells infected with rabies virus and Lagos bat virus but not with vesicular stomatitis virus. In neuronal cells, a significant inhibition of both nucleocapsid inclusions and rabies virus release was observed.”
“To elucidate sex differences in nicotine addiction and the underlying mechanisms of the conditioning aspects of nicotine, nicotine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) was evaluated in male and female Sprague Dawley rats using a three-chambered CPP apparatus and a biased design.