60–0 79) to very strong (r > 0 8) significant positive correlatio

60–0.79) to very strong (r > 0.8) significant positive correlations with all the antioxidant assays except the NO radical-scavenging assay. Polyphenols and ascorbic acid

showed only weak (r = 0.2–0.39) to moderate (r = 0.4–0.59) positive correlation with the NO radical-scavenging assay. This implies the ability of the polyphenols and ascorbic Lapatinib datasheet acid in B. racemosa to act as reducing agents and hydrogen donors in neutralising free radicals. Previous studies have reported positive correlation between FRAP and TEAC values and the corresponding polyphenol and ascorbic acid contents ( Djeridane et al., 2006, Liu et al., 2008 and Razab and Aziz, 2010). Flavonoids, on the other hand only showed moderate positive correlation with the NO radical-scavenging assay and no correlation with the remaining antioxidant assays. A recent study reported no correlation between polyphenol content and NO -scavenging activities ( Royer et al., 2011). Carotenoid content, on the other hand, demonstrated negative relationships with all the antioxidant assays, implying minimal contribution of carotenoids towards the observed antioxidant activities. Müller, Fröhlich, and Böhm (2011)

did not detect DPPH radical-scavenging activities with carotenoids, in agreement with our study. Correlation studies between carotenoids and antioxidant activities are scarce learn more and those that are available have shown conflicting Adenosine triphosphate results with some studies showing positive correlations (Egea, Sánchez-Bel, Romojaro, & Pretel, 2010) and others showing negative correlation (Müller et al., 2011). The types and quantities of carotenoids present in plants could, to a certain extent, influence the resulting antioxidant activities, due to different reaction kinetics (Van Den Berg, Haenen, Van Den Berg, & Bast, 1999). The plant samples were initially subjected to acid hydrolysis to release sugars conjugated to the

polyphenols, hence allowing easy identification of the aglycone or free polyphenols. The development of UHPLC has allowed for more sensitive and rapid analyses of polyphenols in plant samples while still maintaining resolution and stability of the compounds. Fig. 4a and b shows the chromatograms of the leaf and stem extracts of B. racemosa after acid hydrolysis. The chromatogram for the leaf extract of B. racemosa indicated the presence of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin and kaempferol ( Fig. 4a) while only gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and ellagic acid were detected in the stem extract of B. racemosa ( Fig. 4b). The polyphenols in the plant extracts were confirmed by comparing the retention times of the samples with the standards, as well as comparing the absorption spectra between the samples and the standards obtained on the diode array detector. Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, which is a conjugated form of quercetin, has been detected in the seeds of B. racemosa ( Samanta et al.

It is, for

It is, for Selleckchem DAPT example, one of the main sources of chicoric and caffeoylmalic acid in the Central European diet ( Clifford, 2000). The major phenolic compounds in red leaf lettuce are quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside,

quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide and cyanidin 3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside as well as di-O-caffeoyl tartaric acid (chicoric acid), 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid) and O-caffeoylmalic acid ( Llorach et al., 2008). Several of these substances have been ascribed antioxidative and antiatherogenic effects as well as inhibitive effects on lipid peroxidation and cyclooxigenase enzymes ( Cartea et al., 2011). In the cool seasons in Central Europe, lettuce is usually cultivated in greenhouses which

tend to consume large amounts of energy – mostly derived from fossil fuels. Due to economic and ecological reasons, strategies to improve greenhouse CO2-balances are currently being developed. One approach to save energy for heating is to cultivate crops at lower temperatures. This influences plants in manifold ways: Decreasing temperature generally slows down metabolic processes. With lettuce, this results for example in delayed growth, hence postponed development of marketable lettuce heads (Wurr, Fellows, & Phelps, XL184 1996), while it is also very likely to influence quality

parameters like secondary metabolites (Treutter, 2010). Concerning flavonoids, there are indications that biosynthesis increases with lower temperatures (Harbaum-Piayda et al., 2010, Havaux and Kloppstech, 2001 and Neugart et al., 2012). However, there are only few studies on the effect of temperature on the phenolic compounds in lettuce (Boo et al., 2011, Gazula et al., 2005 and Oh et al., 2009). In plants, the general deceleration of metabolic processes at low temperature affects for example the Calvin cycle enzymes of the light-independent part of photosynthesis (Havaux & Kloppstech, 2001). Thus, the intercepted light may eventually become over-excessive and lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leakage of energy and/or electrons to molecular oxygen (Havaux & Kloppstech, Thiamet G 2001). ROS have the potential to destroy thylakoid membranes (the site of the light-dependent photosynthetic reactions), damage DNA, and denature proteins (Gould, Neill, & Vogelmann, 2002). The detrimental effects of low temperature-induced oxidative damage are enforced by the fact that also enzymatic repair processes are slowed down. However, ROS themselves can be perceived by plants. They can act as messenger molecules, eventually influencing gene expression and conveying acclimation to an altered environment (Edreva, 2005 and Gill and Tuteja, 2010).

The purified pirarucu trypsin also has high homology with saffron

The purified pirarucu trypsin also has high homology with saffron cod, a fish native to cold regions, in the first nine N-terminal amino acids (IVGGYECPR). However, the pirarucu trypsin, characterised in the present study, did not show the same degree of homology with the trypsin from the Amazonian fish tambaqui, which occupies the same niche. Furthermore, A. gigas trypsin has the sequence NSVPYQ at position 10–15, which is also present in porcine and human trypsin. The first seven residues (IVGGYEC) determined for the pirarucu trypsin are conserved in most fish, with rare exceptions, such

as tilapia, which has a replacement of Val selleck chemical by Iso in the second position. In most mammals, the replacement of Glu by Thr or Asp is observed at position 5, but other positions are conserved. A. gigas trypsin had a Pro residue

at position 8, where Ala or Lys is common in fish trypsin. The Cys residue at position 7 (Cys-7) is conserved in all trypsins from fish and mammals analysed to (present) date and, according to Stroud, Kay, and Dickerson (1974), the bovine trypsin has a disulphide bond between Cys-7 and Cys 142. By observing the conservation of Cys-7 in trypsins of various animals, there is the possibility that a disulphide selleck chemicals bond (Cys-7/Cys-142) occurs in other trypsins, like fish trypsins. This bond

is essential for the structure and function of these enzymes. An alkaline protease was purified from the pyloric caeca of Arapaima gigas. The characterization, with specific substrate, inhibitors and the N-terminal sequence, demonstrated that 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase this protease is a trypsin. Moreover, it showed interesting features, such as high activity and stability over a large alkaline pH range, thermostability and activity at elevated salt concentrations. These characteristics have confirmed that fish viscera may, under industrial conditions, be used as a source of trypsin with potential for industrial applications. The authors would like to thank Albérico Espírito Santo and João Virgínio for their technical assistance and Dr. Maria do Carmo Figueredo Soares for donation of specimens. This study was supported by the Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP/RECARCINE), Ministério da Aquicultura e Pesca (MAP), Empresa brasileira de pesquisa agropecuária (Embrapa), Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Científico (CNPq), Fundação de Apoio à Ciência e Tecnologia do Estado de Pernambuco (FACEPE), Petróleo do Brasil S/A (PETROBRAS) and the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES). “
“The stevioside is a natural sweetener extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni).

Based on our estimated PFOS exposures, our initial hypothesis, th

Based on our estimated PFOS exposures, our initial hypothesis, that PFOS exposures with up-to-date data would result in lower intakes compared to earlier estimations, is verified. This change in total PFOS exposures is in line with changes observed in temporal trend monitoring studies. However, other factors, such as improvement of analytical methods, contribute to lower estimated PFOS exposures. The hypothesis that precursors are more important compared to earlier estimations is accepted in the low- and intermediate-exposure scenario, however, not in the high-exposure scenario. The rejection of the hypothesis in the high-exposure scenario can to a large extent be explained by

the lower biotransformation factor used in this scenario ON-01910 nmr compared to earlier estimations (0.32 vs 1). There are still uncertainties in the estimation of PFOS intakes as well as in the contribution of precursors. For example, not all precursors included in this study have been reported in all exposure media, and there are precursors which have not been investigated in any of the human exposure pathways (e.g., SAmPAPs). Also, there are still large uncertainties regarding

uptake and biotransformation factors for PFOS and individual precursors. A better understanding of these parameters would selleck allow for a more accurate estimate of precursor intake as an indirect source of PFOS exposure. The isomer pattern (linear and sum branched isomers) of total human exposure to PFOS PI-1840 is investigated using the intermediate-exposure scenario with the assumptions regarding

the PFOS and precursor isomer patterns in dust and air and regarding biotransformation efficiency mentioned in Section 2.3. The isomer pattern of total PFOS exposure including all investigated intake pathways is estimated as 84% linear and 16% sum branched isomers, which is largely influenced by diet (especially fish, which is often enriched in linear isomers; Ullah et al., 2014) being the most important exposure pathway for PFOS (Fig. 3). Based on this estimate, the isomer pattern of total PFOS exposure is strongly enriched with the linear isomer compared to both ECF PFOS (70% linear) and the isomer pattern found in human serum (48–83% linear) (Beesoon et al., 2011, Glynn et al., 2012, Gützkow et al., 2012, Karrman et al., 2007, Rylander et al., 2009 and Zhang et al., 2013b). A considerable uncertainty in this estimation is the isomer pattern of precursors in dust and of PFOS and precursors in air samples. Therefore, the isomer pattern of total PFOS exposure is also estimated according to different scenarios (Fig. 4A and B). Varying the isomer pattern of precursors in dust from 100% linear to 100% branched isomers has only a minor effect on the isomer pattern of total PFOS exposure, i.e., changing it from 85% to 81% linear PFOS (Fig. 4A). Varying the isomer pattern of PFOS and precursors in air from 100% linear to 100% branched isomers results in an overall decrease of the linear PFOS isomer from 88% to 75% (Fig. 4B).

In prior work, one of us has suggested that WM is represented by

In prior work, one of us has suggested that WM is represented by both primary and secondary memory components (Unsworth and Engle, 2007a and Unsworth and Spillers, 2010a). Primary memory reflects both the number of items that can be distinctly maintained and attention control

processes that actively maintain those items and prevent attentional capture. Secondary memory reflects the need to retrieve items that could not be maintained in primary memory as well as the need to retrieve other relevant information from secondary learn more memory. According to this multifaceted model of WM, there are multiple sources of variance within WM measures, and multiple sources of variance that account for the relation between WM and gF (Unsworth, in press, Unsworth and Spillers, 2010a and Unsworth et al., 2009; see also Conway, Getz, Macnamara, & Engel de Abreu, 2011). Likewise, Cowan et al. (2006) suggested that both capacity and attention control would be important sources of variation. The current study represents a direct test of this multifaceted view of WM and its relation to gF. In particular, although prior work has suggested that each of these factors (attention control, capacity,

and secondary memory retrieval) are important, no study has simultaneously examined all three to determine if they will jointly mediate the relation between WM span and gF. As noted previously, WM always seems to have a residual relation with gF, even after controlling for other factors. However, this could be due to the fact that no prior study selleck inhibitor has jointly examined all three factors. In one prior study, both attention control and secondary memory were examined, but WM still predicted gF after controlling for these other two factors (Unsworth & Spillers, 2010a). This suggests that WM is composed of distinct processes and these processes independently

contribute to individual differences in gF. If the multifaceted view of WM is correct, then we should see that WM is related to all three factors, all three factors are related to gF, and importantly all oxyclozanide three factors mediate the relation between WM and gF, with little to no residual relation between WM and gF. Furthermore, given that in most prior studies the storage score from complex span tasks was used to index WM, we also examined measures of processing (specifically processing time) from the complex span tasks. As mentioned previously, prior work has suggested that WM represents resource sharing between processing and storage and it is this resource sharing ability that leads to variation in WM and accounts for its relation with higher-order cognition (Case et al., 1982, Daneman and Carpenter, 1980, Daneman and Tardif, 1987 and Just and Carpenter, 1992). However, other research suggests that processing and storage make independent contributions to performance and to the relation with gF (Bayliss et al., 2003, Logie and Duff, 2007, Unsworth et al., 2009 and Waters and Caplan, 1996).

Because many landscapes have been fragmented by roads, agricultur

Because many landscapes have been fragmented by roads, agriculture, and habitation, truly restoring even a low-intensity understory fire regime across the landscape that burns with varying intensity and leaves behind a mosaic of conditions (e.g., Turner, 2010) would be difficult because most forests have too many roads and too much suppression activity to allow for www.selleckchem.com/products/17-AAG(Geldanamycin).html truly natural fire regimes

at the landscape-scale (Covington et al., 1997 and Phillips et al., 2012). Restoring fire regimes usually involves treatments to reduce fuels to levels where prescribed burning can be safely conducted (Brose et al., 1999, Fulé et al., 2001, Baker and Shinneman, 2004, McIver et al., 2012 and McCaw and Lachlan, 2013). The objective is to increase fire resilience by reducing surface fuels, increasing height to live crown, decreasing crown density, and retaining large

trees or introducing seedlings of resistant species (Brown et al., 2004). Collectively these measures reduce flame length and lower the risk of crown fires; the lower intensity fires that occur should produce the lowest carbon loss. On one hand, this may be accomplished solely with prescribed burning at ecologically appropriate intervals if fuel Selleck Trametinib conditions allow. On the other hand, it may be necessary to reduce stem density, especially of small diameter stems in Protirelin overly dense stands, through mechanical means, followed by re-introduction of fire. The resulting low intensity fire regime may depart from historic conditions, especially on non-production and conservation forests if required to maintain essential habitat or otherwise protect important values (Brown et al., 2004) and with regard

to future climatic conditions (Fulé, 2008). In stands with large accumulations of fuels, the restoration process may require multiple interventions over several years; problems that develop over decades cannot usually be solved with a single treatment. For example, in pine forests in the southern USA (e.g., Fig. 16), fire exclusion and continued litterfall allowed the duff layer to accumulate to as much as three times the level under normal fire return intervals (McNab et al., 1978). An incorrect prescribed fire under these conditions will ignite the duff layer and cause excessive smoke and overstory mortality (Varner et al., 2005 and O’Brien et al., 2010). Depending on site conditions, effective restoration treatments may include some combination of reducing dense understory or midstory stems by mechanical or chemical means, conducting multiple low-intensity prescribed burns for several seasons to reduce fine fuel accumulation, planting ecologically appropriate herbaceous and graminoid species, or converting the overstory to more fire-adapted species (Mulligan et al., 2002 and Hubbard et al., 2004).

Fetal sex was also confirmed by visualization of the external gen

Fetal sex was also confirmed by visualization of the external genitalia after the delivery. The first commercial kit used for Y-STR amplification was the Powerplex Y23 System kit (Promega). Its reaction was performed according to the manufacturer’s instructions in a GeneAmp 9700 PCR System (Life Technologies), except by the use of 60 PCR cycles. The second commercial kit used for Y-STR amplification was the AmpFlST Yfiler PCR amplification kit (Life Technologies). Its reaction was performed according to the manufacturer’s instructions in a GeneAmp 9700 PCR System (Life Technologies), except by the use of 60 PCR cycles. The third (Mini-1) and fourth (Mini-2) multiplex reactions used for Y-STR amplification were previously

described by Asamura et al. [19], they included only mini Y-STR. The mini-1 Y-STR multiplex reaction AUY-922 cell line (4-plex) consisted of 1.0 μL of primer http://www.selleckchem.com/products/BIBF1120.html mix (see below), 12.5 μL Maxima Probe qPCR master mix (Fermentas) and 10 μL of extracted DNA in a 25 μL volume adjusted with DNase/RNase-free water (Fermentas). The primer concentration were as follow: DYS522 (6FAM) 0.5 μM, DYS508 (VIC) 0.6 μM, DYS632 (NED) 0.6 μM, DYS556 (PET) 1.4 μM. The PCR cycling conditions were: preincubation for 10 min

at 95 °C, 50 cycles of 15 s at 95 °C, 30 s at 60 °C and a final extension of 20 min at 60 °C. The Mini-2 Y-STR multiplex reaction (3-plex) was identical to the mini-1, except the primer mix composition DYS570 (6FAM) 0.5 μM, DYS576 (VIC) 0.5 μM, DYS540 (PET) 1.4 μM and the PCR cycling condition (preincubation for 10 min at 95 °C, 50 cycles

of 15 s at 95 °C, 30 s at 55 °C and a final extension of 20 min) at 60 °C). TC-3000 thermocycler (Techne) was used to perform both reactions. The primers for Mini-1 and Mini-2 loci were synthesized by life technologies. The Powerplex Y23 and mini-1/-2 systems were used to genotype the father’s reference sample. The reactions were performed as described above, except the number of PCR cycles that were reduced to 30 in all instances. Moreover, a total of 0.5–1.0 ng of DNA (contained in a 1.2 mm FTA punch) was used per PCR reactions. When necessary, the AmpFlSTR NGM PCR amplification kit was used to perform the kinship analysis and the reactions were performed according Teicoplanin manufacturer’s instructions. The PCR products were separated and detected with a 3500 Genetic Analyzer. For Yfiler, NGM and mini-1/-2 reactions, 1 μL of the amplified sample was added to 8.5 μL Hi-Di Formamide and 0.5 μL of GeneScan 600 LIZ. The electrophoresis condition was 15 s injection time, 1.2 kV injection voltage, 15 kV run voltage, 60 °C, 20 min run time, Dye Set G5 (6FAM, VIC, NED, PET and LIZ). For Powerplex Y23 reaction, 1 μL of the amplified sample was added to 10 μL Hi-Di Formamide and 1 μL of CC5 ILS Y23 (Promega). The electrophoresis condition was identical as described for Yfiler, except for the Dye Set G5 (FL, JOE, TMR-ET, CXR-ET and CC5 from Promega).

Based on specific reamplification of this band from multiple test

Based on specific reamplification of this band from multiple tested bands, we concluded that the artifact bands PR 171 could be derived

from the formation of heteroduplexes during PAGE analysis when more than two similar bands coexisted in the same PCR product [39]. Therefore, we consider the appearance of the heteroduplex artifact bands as a signature for the mixture of the two species that can be beneficial for authentication or identification of mixtures in large volumes of processed ginseng samples [40]. The InDel-based codominant marker has limitations in high-throughput analysis to detect mixtures of the species because genotyping with the marker depends on high-resolution gel electrophoresis. Even though HRM can detect both individual genotypes without gel electrophoresis, the method has limited application to mixed samples [24], [29], [30] and [31]. To address this, we tested the ability of the species-specific markers to identify mixtures. The Pg-specific marker could reveal the presence of P. ginseng at a 1% level in the American ginseng products ( Fig. 6A). Conversely, the Pq-specific marker could identify down to 1% P. quinquefolius in P. ginseng products ( Fig. 6B). Quantitative PCR with the same primer set was consistent Obeticholic Acid mouse with the AGE results, and revealed quantitative mixing ratios

down to 1% (Fig. 7). The quantitative PCR method reports the quantitative mixing ratio without requiring gel electrophoresis, which is an advantage for mass and high-throughput analysis for monitoring mislabeling or false trading in commercial ginseng products [41]. These markers will be useful to prevent the illegal distribution or intentional mixing of American and Korean ginseng in the ginseng market. Korean and American ginseng are important herbal medicines and each species has some

unique medicinal functions [42] and [43]. Applying the evaluation system we have developed here will promote and increase the value of Korean ginseng as well as American ginseng in Myosin Korea and worldwide, by allowing consumers to be confident in the contents of commercial ginseng products. All authors declare no conflicts of interest. This study was supported by the Next-Generation BioGreen21 Program (No. PJ008202), Rural Development Administration, Korea. “
“Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) is a renowned perennial herb that has long been used for medicinal purposes in East Asia [1]. P. ginseng has a large genome estimated to be more than 3 Gbp in size [2] and 2n = 48 chromosomes [3]. Species belonging to the genus Panax have 2n = 24 chromosomes or 48 chromosomes, so that the species with 2n = 48 chromosomes have been regarded as tetraploids [4] and [5].

One such model suggests that channel size

One such model suggests that channel size DZNeP purchase and incision depth influence post-incision processes, with controls on widening from accumulation of material at the base of eroding banks acting as a limit on lateral channel migration (Beechie et al., 2008). In Robinson Creek, the incision and bank erosion occurring is consistent

with the initial deepening stages of the cycle in relatively narrow portions and subsequent stages in the relatively wider portions of the channel, where erosion control measures have not been implemented. However, if incision continues, currently wider areas with bars and potential for vegetation establishment may destabilize as the incision–erosion cycle continues. Evidence for this scenario is evident from Robinson Creek field surveys that show upstream incision even in Obeticholic Acid datasheet relatively wide zones over a three year period. In such an actively incising channel,

dynamic changes and complex responses may create spatial variability in geomorphic responses and complexity in channel recovery as multiple knickzones migrate upstream into reaches where cycles of local incision and aggradation have already occurred. Erosion control measures that limit widening may alter future channel adjustments. Both positive and negative feedback loops operate in coupled human–landscapes (Chin et al., 2013) such as incised alluvial systems. A positive feedback is an initial change to the system that causes more change in the same direction. In contrast, a negative feedback is a modification that limits the initial change. With respect to channel incision processes, positive feedback may occur because as a channel incises, high magnitude flood flows become confined (instead of spreading onto former floodplains) causing flow depth, transport capacity,

and shear stress to increase and further erode the bed of the channel. Negative feedback may occur when bank height increases Evodiamine beyond a critical threshold, causing bank erosion and channel widening to occur, and limit flow depth and shear stress such that aggradation occurs. Considering coupled human–landscape feedbacks is critical in understanding how human activities contribute to positive feedback that may exacerbate incision versus negative feedback that may minimize incision and promote resilience over various time scales. For example, human responses such as constructing bank erosion control structures that address a symptom of incision—namely bank erosion—but not the cause (Spink et al., 2008), may intensify incision that can undercut the structure itself, and thus are not likely to be effective over the long term. Similar conclusions have been noted in other dynamic rivers (Miller and Kochel, 2010). Another problem is lack of attention, as structures intended to limit erosion are rarely monitored (Shields, 2009).

The lowest sediment fluxes for the entire dataset was measured in

The lowest sediment fluxes for the entire dataset was measured in the most isolated lakes like Belciug, an oxbow lake, and Hontzu Lake, even if both are located relatively close to major distributaries (i.e., St. George and Chilia respectively). Our analysis Raf inhibitor of historical bathymetry between 1856 and 1871/1897 clearly shows that in natural conditions two depocenters were present along the Danube delta coast and they were located close the mouths of the largest Danube distributaries: the Chilia and the St. George. The Chilia distributary,

which at the time transported ca. 70% of the total Danube sediment load, was able to construct a river dominated lobe (Fig. 4a) on the shallow and relatively wave-protected region of the shelf that fronted its mouths (Giosan et al., 2005). Sediment accumulation led to a uniformly ∼20 m thick delta front advance in a quasi-radial pattern, all around the lobe’s coast. Sedimentation rates reached in places values higher than 50 cm/yr especially at Chilia’s northern and central

secondary mouths. The second depocenter belonged to the other active delta lobe, St. George II, which exhibited a wide shallow platform fronting its mouth with an incipient emergent barrier island that was already visible in 1897 (Fig. 4a). Such a platform was conspicuously missing in front of the Chilia lobe. The main St. George depocenter on the delta front was deeper than at Chilia (to ∼−30 m isobath) and was almost entirely offset downdrift of the river mouth Reverse transcriptase but deposition buy Docetaxel similarly took place in a radial pattern around the delta platform.

The accumulation rates were even higher than for the Chilia depocenter (up to 70–80 cm/yr) even if the feeding distributary, the St. George, was transporting at the time only ∼20% of the total sediment load of the Danube. This suggests that the St. George depocenter was an effective temporary sediment trap rather than a point of continuous sediment redistribution toward the rest of the lobe’s coast. The nearshore zone between the Chilia lobe and St. George mouth, corresponding largely to the partially abandoned Sulina lobe, was erosional all along (Fig. 4a) to the closure depth (i.e., ∼5 m in wave protected regions and ∼10 m on unprotected stretches of the shoreline – Giosan et al., 1999) and even deeper toward the south. The third distributary of the Danube, the Sulina branch, discharging less than 10% of the Danube’s sediment load, could not maintain its own depocenter. However, together with the Chilia plume, Sulina probably contributed sediment to the stable distal offshore region (>5 m depth) in front of its mouth (Fig. 4a). Further downdrift, the nearshore zone to Perisor, outside the frontal St. George depocenter, was stable to accreting, protected from the most energetic waves coming from the northeast and east by the St. George lobe itself (Fig.