As a result, the light output efficiency of LED with PQC structur

As a result, the light output efficiency of LED with PQC structure on n-side roughing and p-GaN surface was significantly higher than that of a conventional LED. Additionally, the intensity-current (L-I) measurements demonstrate that the light output power of LED with PQC on p-GaN surface, LED with PQC on n-side roughing, and LED with PQC structure on p-GaN surface and n-side roughing was higher than that of a conventional LED at 20 mA with standard device processing. Methods The GaN-based

LED samples are grown by MOCVD with a rotating-disk reactor (Veeco, Plainview, NY, USA) on a c-axis sapphire (0001) substrate at the growth pressure of 200 mbar. The LED structure consists of a 50-nm-thick

GaN nucleation layer grown at 500°C, a 2-μm un-doped GaN buffer, a 2-μm-thick Si-doped GaN buffer layer grown at 1,050°C, an unintentionally doped InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well PCI32765 (MQW) active region grown at 770°C, a 50-nm-thick Mg-doped p-AlGaN electron blocking layer grown at 1,050°C, and a 120-nm-thick Mg-doped p-GaN contact layer grown at 1,050°C. The MQW active region consists of five periods of 3 nm/7-nm-thick In0.18Ga0.82N/GaN quantum well layers and barrier layers. The detailed process flow of GaN-based LED with PQC structure on p-GaN surface by nano-imprint lithography is shown in Figure 1. The first nano-imprint step is generating a replication Transmembrane Transproters inhibitor of an intermediate polymer stamp (IPS) from a Ni master stamp. Employing IPS stamps instead of hard stamps solves hurdles, such as (1) imprint at high pressures without damaging stamps or substrates, (2) imprint adaptively on non-flat surfaces or surfaces with particle contamination.

Therefore, the soft material will not damage the master stamp or the substrate. It adapts to uneven surfaces such as epitaxial overgrown substrates or samples contaminated with particles. The pressure of 30 bar and a temperature of 160°C were applied to the nano-imprint lithography system for about 5 min. A 200-nm polymer layer was coated on the SiO2 (200 nm)/GaN LED sample surface at step 2, and these pre-polymers have thermoplastic properties, a very low glass transition acetylcholine temperature, and can be printed at temperatures ranging from room temperature up to 100°C. The pre-polymers have a sufficient number of reactive sites that can be activated for cross-linking by UV radiation, which takes place during a post-exposure bake that is executed at the same temperature as the other process steps. Figure 1 Schematic diagrams of GaN-based LEDs with PQC on p-GaN surface by nano-imprint lithography. Step 3 is in a simultaneous thermal and UV imprinting process, which is executed by the IPS imprinted on a pre-heated polymer layer.

32 0 18-0 56 6 41 E-05 58 1 21 0 53 2 74 Time from end of initial

32 0.18-0.56 6.41 E-05 58 1.21 0.53 2.74 Time from end of initial CT to HDC     NA   60 0.97 0.86-1.09 0.59 Treatment (CCA vs HDC)     NA       NA   PFS, progression-free survival; N, number of cases with data available; 95CI, 95% confidence interval; HR, hazard ratio; OMS, performance status; HDC, buy SN-38 high-dose chemotherapy; CCA, conventional chemotherapy alone. Figure 2 Progression-Free Survival (A) and Overall Survival (B) according to chemotherapy regimen in the whole population. Conventional chemotherapy alone (CCA) alone in black, n=103; conventional chemotherapy plus high-dose chemotherapy in grey, n=60, + censored data. We then explored the

prognostic value of the usual clinicopathological features in each treatment arm. We first examined PFS. In the CCA group, PFS was influenced by debulking surgery results (HR=0.29), clinical response to therapy (HR=0.32), and CA125 normalization (HR=0.32). In the HDC arm, age (HR=2.07 if older than 50 years) FIGO stage (HR=0.41 for stage IIIc) and clinical response to initial treatment (HR=0.46) had a prognostic value (Table 3B). When focusing only in the pre-treatment clinicopathological features, only age and FIGO stage had a prognostic value in the HDC group. Impact of HDC on PFS according to these last two features was analyzed. HDC significantly improved PFS in young patients (p=0.02, log-rank test), but had no prognostic find protocol value in women older than 50 years (p=0.81, log-rank test), (Figure 3). In the same way,

HDC increased PFS in stage IIIc patients (p=0.03, log-rank test), but not in stage IV cases (p=0.94, log-rank test). Figure 3 Progression-Free Survival according to chemotherapy regimen. Conventional chemotherapy alone (CCA) in black or plus high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) in grey.

(A) In patients under 50 years of age (n=52), median PFS was 11 months in the CCA subset versus 81.7 months in the HDC subset. (B) In patients older than 50 years old (n=111), median PFS was 18.3 months in the CCA subset versus 17.9 months in the HDC subset. + censored data. Cox regression analyses performed in both young patients and stage IIIc cases found that PFS was significantly affected by HDC, surgical results, complete Etomidate remission and Ca125 normalization after conventional treatment. Young patients had a 2.44-fold rate of progression if they did not receive HDC (Table 4); and stage IIIc patients a 1.61-fold rate of progression if they did not receive HDC (Additional file 1: Table S1). By multivariate analyses HDC had an independent prognostic value in young patients (Table 4), but not in stage IIIc cases (Additional file 1: Table S1). Table 4 Prognostic features (PFS) in young patients (≤50 years), Cox regression analyses   Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis   N HR 95CI p-value N HR 95CI p-value OMS (0-1 vs 2-3) 36 1.76 0.71-4.38 0.22         FIGO (IIIc vs IV) 52 0.57 0.25-1.33 0.19         Histology (serous vs others) 52 0.81 0.51-1.56 0.52         Grade (1-2 vs 3) 31 1.31 0.83-2.08 0.

By week 3, the total number of visible tumors was 5 and 4 in the

By week 3, the total number of visible tumors was 5 and 4 in the control and experimental groups, respectively. These numbers remained unchanged until the end of the

experiment. Histopathological Studies Macroscopically CP-690550 manufacturer detectable intraocular masses were seen in 6 animals of the control group and 4 animals in the experimental group (Figure 1). Histopathological evaluation of the enucleated eyes revealed tumors in 7 of the animals in the control group and in 5 of the experimental group. Figure 1 Gross & histopathological images of an enucleated rabbit eye. A) Cross section of the right eye (O.D) from a control group rabbit, displaying a large intraocular mass and hemorrhage, at week 5 of the experiment. B) Photomicrograph of the same rabbit RG7112 cell line eye (O.D), H&E displaying hemorrhage surrounding the tumor cells (200×). No macroscopic metastatic disease was found in either group. Serial sections of the animals’ lungs revealed metastatic disease in 4 animals in the control group and in 4 animals in the experimental group. No liver metastasis was seen. The differences seen between the two groups were not statistically

significant. Re-Culturing of Cells Post-Euthanasia A total of 5 primary tumors from the control group and 4 primary tumors from the experimental group were successfully re-cultured (1 passage) for subsequent use in the cytospin analysis and proliferation assays. In addition, 2 CMC cultures from the control group and 1 from the experimental group were retrieved for subsequent cytospin and proliferation assay analysis. Immunohistochemistry Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease All of the FFPE control rabbit eyes were negative for PCNA (n = 5). The FFPE blue light treated group had 3 rabbit eyes that were highly positive (85–100%), and 2 rabbit eyes that had mild positivity when stained with PCNA (n = 5). A Correlation analysis was

preformed to relate staining intensity and blue light exposure. Statistically significant results were obtained (n = 10, r = 0.8, p = 0.0096) (Figure 2). Figure 2 PCNA Immunostaining comparing FFPE blue light exposed rabbit eyes to control eyes (O.D). A) Positive nuclear staining for PCNA in cells (92.1) from a rabbit in the blue light treated group (200×). B) Negative nuclear staining for PCNA in cells (92.1) from a rabbit in the control group (200×). C) Negative Control (200×). D) Box and Whisker plot depicting the relative percentage of PCNA positivity between rabbits exposed to blue light, and those not exposed. Immunocytochemistry All re-cultured samples (primary tumors, CMCs) stained positive for the monoclonal mouse anti-human Melanosome marker (Figure 3). This specific positivity indicates that all re-cultured cells used in the proliferation assays were indeed the human uveal melanoma cell line 92.1 that was initially inoculated in the eyes of the rabbits. Figure 3 Cytospins prepared from re-cultred 92.

The expression of DNMT3a mRNA did not change

regardless o

The expression of DNMT3a mRNA did not change

regardless of the ��-Nicotinamide purchase 125I irradiation dose. The similar DNMT expression patterns were confirmed by immunohistochemical staining in 125I seed implanted pancreatic cancer. Most importantly, the 2 Gy 125I seed implantation limited the growth of the pancreatic tumor, while 4 Gy 125I seed implantation substantially decreased pancreatic tumor volume. Our results demonstrated that apoptosis may have an important role in the therapeutic effects when pancreatic cancer is exposed to continuous low-energy 125I irradiation. The apoptosis in the 4 Gy group was more obvious than in the 2 Gy group, which is in agreement with the fact that cancer treatment is more effective at 4 Gy than at 2 Gy. Similar irradiation-induced apoptosis patterns were also observed in the other cancer cell

lines [22]. The 125I irradiation induced apoptosis was the primary mechanism of CL187 colonic cancer cell-killing under low dose treatment [22]. Ionizing radiation can generate the reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce apoptosis [23]. The ROS damages critical cellular components such as DNA, proteins, and lipids, eventually causing cellular apoptosis [24]. Therefore, the 125I irradiation-induced apoptosis is a key mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of 125I seed implantation in pancreatic cancer. Our results demonstrated that altered DNA methylation patterns might have a pivotal role in Cediranib concentration tumor inhibition resulting

from consecutive low-energy irradiation. The 2 Gy irradiation caused a significant increase in DNMTs expression, whereas 4 Gy irradiation was associated with decreased DNMTs expression. However, a substantial reduction in tumor volume was only observed in 4 Gy irradiation group rather than in 2 Gy group at 28 d after 125I seed implantation. There are a strong and positive correlation between DNA methylation and expression of DNMTs, because DNMTs maintain DNA methylation patterns [25]. Therefore, it is reasonable to speculate that DNA hypomethylation Isotretinoin significantly inhibits cancer cell proliferation or impairs cell survival potentially to an even greater extent than DNA hypermethylation. X- and γ-radiation induce DNA hypomethylation paralleled by decreased DNMTs expression in somatic cells [25–28]. Actually, low-dose irradiation (2Gy) predominantly resulted in reversible DNA damage, which was associated with DNA repair. The DNMTs are the key enzyme for DNA repair. As a result, the increase in reactive DNMTs expression reflects active DNA repair. Thus, 125I irradiation-induced DNA hypomethylation could be the key mechanism by which 125I seed implantation lead to tumor growth inhibition. Aberrant de novo DNA methylation is commonly associated with cancer, and DNA methylation in mammalian cells largely occurs on cytosine residues at CpG dinucleotides in genomic DNA.

However, the influence of TBs on the mechanical behavior of metal

However, the influence of TBs on the mechanical behavior of metal nanospheres is still unclear up to now. This paper is to investigate the deformation mechanisms in twinned

copper nanoparticles subjected to uniaxial compression. Methods Consider a face-centered-cubic (fcc) copper nanosphere with parallel (111) coherent TBs under compression, as shown in Figure 1. The twin spacing is d and the loading direction varies SBE-��-CD ic50 from [111] to indicated by a tilt angle θ between the twin plane and compressive plane. The embedded atom method (EAM) is utilized to describe the interactions between copper atoms [17], which has been widely adopted for copper crystals [18, 19]. Figure 1 Schematics of compression of twinned nanospheres. Simulation model (a) and internal twin structures (b). To simulate the compression process, a repulsive potential is employed to characterize the interaction between copper atoms and the planar indenter as [20, 21] (1) where

K is a specified force constant related to the hardness of indenter, h is the position of the compression plane, λ(z i – h) is the distance between the i-th atom and the planar indenter, H is the unit step function, and λ equals 1 for the top indenter, −1 for the bottom indenter, respectively. The molecular dynamics simulations are performed using LAMMPS developed by Sandia National Laboratories. In simulations, the surface of nanosphere is free, medroxyprogesterone except atoms adjacent to the top and bottom indenters experiencing a repulsive potential. An NVT ensemble is chosen with selleck inhibitor velocity-Verlet integration and a time step of 2.0 fs, and the temperature is controlled at

10 K using a Nosé-Hoover thermostat [22, 23]. Before compression, the systems are firstly equilibrated at 10 K for about 20 ps. During compression, the top and bottom indenters simultaneously move toward the center of the sphere with a constant velocity of approximately 10 m/s, and the compression depth δ is defined as the decreasing distance between the two indenters. We fix the radius of nanosphere as 15 nm and investigate the effects of TBs on the deformation of twinned nanoparticle. The total number of atoms in simulations is about 1.2 million. The common neighbor analysis (CNA) method is utilized to analyze the defect structures inside the deformed nanosphere [24]. In this method, atoms in perfect fcc lattice are distinguished from those in hcp lattice, surface, dislocation cores and other defects. Results and discussion Firstly, we examine the influence of twin spacing in nanosphere with the loading direction perpendicular to the TBs (θ = 0°). Figure 2 shows the load response of twinned nanospheres with twin spacing d varying from 1.25 to 5.09 nm. For comparison, the load response of a twin-free nanosphere is also included. Figure 2 Load versus compression depth response of nanosphere with different twin spacing.

28, 0 96, 1 16, 2 41, 3 37, and 4 96, respectively This revealed

28, 0.96, 1.16, 2.41, 3.37, and 4.96, respectively. This revealed that increasing the deposition time or repeating time could raise the Ag content. Furthermore, their utilization for the photocatalytic

degradation of R6G at an initial R6G con-centration of 10−5 M and 25°C was indicated in Figure 4. The corresponding rate constants were obtained as 1.40 × 10−3, 1.88 × 10−3, 2.81 × 10−3, 6.17 × 10−3, 1.09 × 10−2, and 8.00 × 10−3 min−1, respectively. It was found that the rate constant increased with increasing the Ag content up to 3.37%. This could be reasonably attributed to the fact that more Ag nanoparticles could absorb more visible light. However, when the Ag content was above selleck 3.37%, the rate constant decreased. Because the catalytic activity depended on the particle size and increasing the repeating time might increase not only

the particle number but also the particle size, it was suggested that larger Ag nanoparticles might be formed when the deposition step was repeated for four times and therefore led to the decrease of catalytic activity. In addition, upon illumination, the electrons on silver nanoparticles tended to Crenolanib solubility dmso migrate to the conduction band of ZnO. However, if there were too many silver nanoparticles, the electrons might migrate back to Ag nanoparticles, which formed the recombination centers and lowered the photocatalytic efficiency [58]. Thus, the ZnO-H@Ag with 3.37% of silver was used for the investigation of other factors. Figure 4 Photocatalytic degradation of R6G in the visible light region by ZnO-H@Ag with different Ag contents. Initial R6G concentration at 10−5 M; temperature of 25°C. The effect of initial R6G concentration on the photocatalytic degradation of R6G at 25°C was shown in Figure 5. The rate constants were 1.20 × 10−2, 1.09 × 10−2, and 1.01 × 10−2 min−1 when the initial R6G concentrations were 0.5 × 10−5, 1.0 × 10−5, and 2.0 × 10−5 M, respectively. They have no quite significant differences. Higher initial dye concentration led to only slight decrease of rate constant. This was similar to some previous works [55, 59] and could be referred to (1) more dye molecules occupied more active sites on

ZnO and (2) the turbidity would increase when the dye concentration became high, which led to the scattering Branched chain aminotransferase of the incident visible light and therefore lowered the photocatalytic rate. Figure 5 Effect of initial R6G concentration on photocatalytic degradation of R6G in visible light region by ZnO-H@Ag. Temperature of 25°C. The effect of temperature on the photocatalytic degradation of R6G at an initial R6G concentration of 10−5 M was shown in Figure 6. It was found that the photocatalytic rate increased only slightly with increasing the temperature. This revealed that the increase of temperature slightly helped the photocatalytic reaction to compete with electron–hole recombination more efficiently, leading to an increase in photocatalytic efficiency [53]. The rate constants were 1.

CrossRef 27 Chou JY, Lensch-Falk JL, Hemesath ER, Lauhon LJ: Van

CrossRef 27. Chou JY, Lensch-Falk JL, Hemesath ER, Lauhon LJ: Vanadium Thiazovivin manufacturer oxide nanowire phase and orientation analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. J Appl Phys 2009, 105:034310.CrossRef 28. Abello L, Husson E, Repelin Y, Lucazeau G: Vibrational spectra and valence force field of crystalline V 2 O 5 . Spectrochim Acta 1983, 39A:641. 29. Bhattacharya P: Semiconductor Optoelectronic Devices, Volume 8. 2nd edition. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc; 1997:346–351. 30. Fang X, Bando Y, Liao M, Gautam UK, Zhi C, Dierre B, Liu B, Zhai T, Sekiguchi T, Koide Y, Golberg D: Single-crystalline ZnS nanobelts as ultraviolet-light

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2e and f) Ascospores 75–95 × 15–26 μm (\( \barx = 84 3 \times 17

2e and f). Ascospores 75–95 × 15–26 μm (\( \barx = 84.3 \times 17.5\mu m \), n = 10), obliquely uniseriate and partially overlapping, broadly fusoid to fusoid with narrowly rounded ends in front view, flat on one side from side view (14–20 μm thick), yellowish brown, apical cells usually hyaline, muriform, with 14–17(−18) transversal septa, 1–3 longitudinal septa in most cells, slightly constricted at the septa, with a gelatinous cap at each end (Fig. 2c and d). Anamorph: none

reported. Material examined: BELIZE, Wee-Wee Cay, on submerged wood of roots and branches of Rhizophora mangle L., Mar. 1983, leg. J. Kohlmeyer (NY, J.K. 4332b, isotype). Ro 61-8048 clinical trial Notes Morphology Aigialus was formally established by Kohlmeyer and Schatz (1985) based on its immersed or semi-immersed ascomata with periphysate ostiole, trabeculate pseudoparaphyses, selleck chemical cylindrical and fissitunicate asci, and distinctive muriform ascospores with gelatinous sheath or caps. There are five accepted species in the genus, namely A. grandis, A. mangrovei Borse, A. parvus S. Schatz & Kohlm., A. rhizophorae Borse and A. striatispora K.D. Hyde (Jones et al.

2009). Aigialus was first assigned to the Melanommatales, but its familial status was uncertain (Kohlmeyer and Schatz 1985). Barr (1990b) included Aigialus in Massariaceae based on its conspicuous apical ring in the asci and ascospore characters,

and this has subsequently been widely followed (Eriksson 2006; Hawksworth et al. 1995; Kirk et al. 2001; Lumbsch and Huhndorf 2007). Phylogenetic study The generic type of Aigialus (A. grandis) together with other three marine species, i.e. A. mangrovei, A. parvus as well as A. rhizophorae form a robust clade on the phylogenetic tree. Thus a new family, Aigialaceae, Rolziracetam was introduced to accommodate Aigialus together with Ascocratera and Rimora (Suetrong et al. 2009). Concluding remarks The pleosporalean status of Aigialus has been phylogenetically verified, and the single branch containing Aigialus, Ascocratera and Rimora represents a familial rank of Aigialaceae (Suetrong et al. 2009). Amniculicola Yin. Zhang & K.D. Hyde, Mycol. Res. 112: 1189 (2008). (Amniculicolaceae) Generic description Habitat freshwater, saprobic. Ascomata solitary, scattered, or in small groups, initially immersed, becoming erumpent, to nearly superficial, globose, subglobose to conical, wall black, roughened; apex well differentiated into two tuberculate flared lips surrounding a slit-like ostiole. Peridium thin, 2-layered, outer layer composed of small heavily pigmented thick-walled cells of textura angularis, inner layer composed of hyaline thin-walled cells of textura angularis. Hamathecium of dense, long trabeculate pseudoparaphyses, embedded in mucilage, anastomosing between and above the asci.

CrossRefPubMed 40 Hattori N, Sakakibara T, Kajiyama N, Igarashi

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DJ:In vitro and in vivo complementation of the Helicobacter pylori arginase mutant using an intergenic chromosomal site. Helicobacter 2006,11(5):477–493.CrossRefPubMed 45. Nelson D, Neill W, Poxton IR: A comparison of immunoblotting, flow cytometry and ELISA to monitor the binding of anti-lipopolysaccharide monoclonal antibodies. J Immunol Methods 1990,133(2):227–233.CrossRefPubMed 46. Hosoda H, Takasaki W, Oe T, Tsukamoto R, Nambara T: A comparison of chromogenic substrates for horseradish peroxidase as a label in steroid enzyme ACP-196 immunoassay. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1986,34(10):4177–4182. 47. Hitchcock PJ, Brown

TM: Morphological heterogeneity among Salmonella Decitabine clinical trial lipopolysaccharide chemotypes in silver-stained polyacrylamide gels. J Bacteriol 1983,154(1):269–277.PubMed 48. Westphal O, Jann K: Bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Extraction with phenol-water and further applications of the procedure. Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry (Edited by: Whistler RL). 1965, 5:83–91. 49. Laemmli UK: Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 1970,227(5259):680–685.CrossRefPubMed 50. Tsai CM, Frasch CE: A sensitive silver stain for detecting lipopolysaccharides in polyacrylamide gels. Anal Biochem 1982,119(1):115–119.CrossRefPubMed 51. Towbin H, Staehelin T, Gordon J: Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1979,76(9):4350–4354.CrossRefPubMed 52. Pukac LA, Carter JE, Morrison KS, Karnovsky MJ: Enhancement of diaminobenzidine colorimetric signal in immunoblotting. Biotechniques 1997,23(3):385–388.PubMed 53. Williams JC, McInnis KA, Testerman TL: Adherence of Helicobacter pylori to abiotic surfaces is influenced by serum. Appl Environ Microbiol 2008,74(4):1255–1258.CrossRefPubMed 54.

Characteristic Patients (n = 36) Age (Median ± SD) 43 2 ± 15 7 Hi

Characteristic Patients (n = 36) Age (Median ± SD) 43.2 ± 15.7 Histology      Undifferentiated 21 (58.3%)    Differentiated 15 (41.7%) Primary tumor stages      T(1) 6 (16.7%)    T(2) 7 (19.5%)    T(3) 9 (25%)    T(4) 14 (38.8%) Nodular metastasis      Yes 6 (16.7%)    No 30 (83.3%) Distant metastasis      Yes 3 (8.3%)    No 33 (91.7%) PLK-1 expression      High (score 3) 17 (47.2%)    Middle (score 2) 8 (22.2%)    Low (score 1) 7 (19.5%)    Negative(score 0) 4 (11.1%) Figure 4EGI-1 nmr 1 Immunohistochemical staining of PLK-1 in human cervical carcinoma tissues. Representative

results of immunostaining are presented; cytoplasmic and some nuclear staining can be observed in tumor cells. A, Medium PLK-1 positive staining in human cervical carcinoma tissues (original magnification, 200×); B, low PLK-1 positive staining in human cervical carcinoma SRT2104 ic50 tissues (original magnification, 200×); C, PLK-1 negative control staining in human cervical carcinoma tissues (original magnification, 200×); D, Association of PLK-1 expression and primary tumor stage (* P < 0.05 compared to other group). To evaluate the possible importance of PLK-1 in tumor progression, we then evaluated the relationship between PLK-1 intensity and tumor size. Using the Spearman rank correlation test, a statistically significant positive correlation between PLK-1 expression and primary

tumor stage (r = 0.605, P = 0.002) but not metastasis was identified. Our results, therefore, provided clues that the expression of PLK-1 is associated with the local expansion of cervical carcinoma. Levels of PLK-1

mRNA and protein in HeLa cells after PLK-1 or siRNA transfection Methane monooxygenase To evaluate the effects of PLK-1 siRNA on the biological characteristics of HeLa cells, we first transfected HeLa cells with the PLK-1 plasmid and PLK-1 siRNA. We harvested cells at different time points (0 h, 12 h, 24 h and 36 h) to measure PLK-1 gene and protein expression. As illustrated in Fig 2, levels of PLK-1 mRNA were significantly elevated after PLK-1 transfection compared to the control cells transfected with empty plasmid, with an increase in expression by 2.2-fold at 12 h, 3.5-fold at 24 h, and 4.7-fold at 36 h (P < 0.05). Similarly, an increase was also observed in protein level at 24 h (2.1-fold) and 36 h (2.3-fold). Conversely, siRNA was shown to inhibit PLK-1 mRNA and protein expression. PLK-1 mRNA levels were significantly reduced after PLK-1 siRNA transfection compared to the control cells transfected with empty plasmid, with a decrease of 49% at 12 h, 62% at 24 h, 69% at 36 h (P < 0.05). Similar decreases were also observed at the protein level at 24 h (58%) and 48 h (76%). Our results suggest that PLK-1 siRNA transfection into HeLa cells is able to knock-down the expression of PLK-1. Figure 2 Alteration of PLK-1 gene and protein expression in HeLa cells after PLK-1 or siRNA transfection. PLK-1 production in HeLa cells increased after PLK-1 transfection, but was inhibited by siRNA transfection.