As a result, the light output efficiency of LED with PQC structure on n-side roughing and p-GaN surface was significantly higher than that of a conventional LED. Additionally, the intensity-current (L-I) measurements demonstrate that the light output power of LED with PQC on p-GaN surface, LED with PQC on n-side roughing, and LED with PQC structure on p-GaN surface and n-side roughing was higher than that of a conventional LED at 20 mA with standard device processing. Methods The GaN-based
LED samples are grown by MOCVD with a rotating-disk reactor (Veeco, Plainview, NY, USA) on a c-axis sapphire (0001) substrate at the growth pressure of 200 mbar. The LED structure consists of a 50-nm-thick
GaN nucleation layer grown at 500°C, a 2-μm un-doped GaN buffer, a 2-μm-thick Si-doped GaN buffer layer grown at 1,050°C, an unintentionally doped InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well PCI32765 (MQW) active region grown at 770°C, a 50-nm-thick Mg-doped p-AlGaN electron blocking layer grown at 1,050°C, and a 120-nm-thick Mg-doped p-GaN contact layer grown at 1,050°C. The MQW active region consists of five periods of 3 nm/7-nm-thick In0.18Ga0.82N/GaN quantum well layers and barrier layers. The detailed process flow of GaN-based LED with PQC structure on p-GaN surface by nano-imprint lithography is shown in Figure 1. The first nano-imprint step is generating a replication Transmembrane Transproters inhibitor of an intermediate polymer stamp (IPS) from a Ni master stamp. Employing IPS stamps instead of hard stamps solves hurdles, such as (1) imprint at high pressures without damaging stamps or substrates, (2) imprint adaptively on non-flat surfaces or surfaces with particle contamination.
Therefore, the soft material will not damage the master stamp or the substrate. It adapts to uneven surfaces such as epitaxial overgrown substrates or samples contaminated with particles. The pressure of 30 bar and a temperature of 160°C were applied to the nano-imprint lithography system for about 5 min. A 200-nm polymer layer was coated on the SiO2 (200 nm)/GaN LED sample surface at step 2, and these pre-polymers have thermoplastic properties, a very low glass transition acetylcholine temperature, and can be printed at temperatures ranging from room temperature up to 100°C. The pre-polymers have a sufficient number of reactive sites that can be activated for cross-linking by UV radiation, which takes place during a post-exposure bake that is executed at the same temperature as the other process steps. Figure 1 Schematic diagrams of GaN-based LEDs with PQC on p-GaN surface by nano-imprint lithography. Step 3 is in a simultaneous thermal and UV imprinting process, which is executed by the IPS imprinted on a pre-heated polymer layer.