At some of the CCs, certain recent viruses reacted
with lower titres in HI assays with ferret antisera raised against either B/Wisconsin/1/2010 or B/Hubei-Wujiagang/158/2009 egg-propagated viruses. These differences were also observed in antigenic cartography of B/Yamagata viruses (Fig. 6) in which two groups of viruses were apparent, one clustering around B/Wisconsin/1/2010 and the other around B/Massachusetts/2/2012. The majority of HA genes of recent B/Yamagata-lineage viruses fell within genetic group 2 (represented http://www.selleckchem.com/products/3-methyladenine.html by B/Massachusetts/2/2012) with signature AA substitutions R48K, P108A, T182A and S230G in HA1. Fewer belonged to group 3 (represented by B/Wisconsin/1/2010 and B/Hubei-Wujiagang/158/2009) with signature AA substitutions S150I, N166Y and G230D (see Fig. 7 and also Fig. S8 for a high resolution tree constructed with sequences of 306 B/Yamagata lineage isolates collected by GISRS since February 2012). Group 2 viruses predominated globally with the exception of China PF-06463922 nmr where group 3 viruses were dominant during this period (Fig. S8). Data generated by WHO CCs and ERLs showed that
the post-vaccination antisera obtained from people immunised with vaccines containing B/Wisconsin/1/2010 or B/Hubei-Wujiagang/158/2009-like viruses generally reacted well with recent influenza B viruses from the B/Yamagata lineage, but less well with B viruses from the B/Victoria lineage (Fig. S9). Some serum panels gave significantly
lower anti-HA antibody titres against genetic group 2 viruses than against genetic group 3 B/Yamagata-lineage viruses. Based on the increasing proportion Tryptophan synthase of B/Yamagata-lineage viruses, notably those falling within HA genetic group 2, in many parts of the world during the surveillance period and the antigenic differences observed between group 2 and group 3 B/Yamagata-lineage viruses, it was concluded that a B/Massachusetts/2/2012-like virus (group 2; B/Yamagata-lineage) would be the most appropriate virus for trivalent vaccine compositions for use in the Northern Hemisphere for the 2013–2014 season. For quadrivalent influenza vaccines containing two influenza B viruses, it was recommended that the additional B virus be a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus of the B/Victoria lineage. The two classes of antiviral drugs currently licensed for the prevention and treatment of influenza are the adamantanes or M2 ion channel blockers (amantadine and rimantadine) and the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir and, in some countries, peramvir and laninamivir). All A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses screened for resistance markers carried the AA substitution S31N in the M2 protein associated with resistance to amantadine and rimantadine.