shared molecular mechanisms are thought to underlie the phenomenon of comorbidity (ie, an epidemiological association of epilepsy with other disorders). Since it is likely that comorbidity results from a shared Epigenetics Compound Library cell assay genetic susceptibility, genetic approaches are well-suited for identifying these common pathways. An important further aspect is the availability of human brain tissue in the context of an epilepsy surgical center for cellular and molecular analyses, as well as in-vitro physiology and pharmacology experiments. These human brain Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical materials represent a unique resource for the assessment of specific pathophysiological hypotheses, especially in combination with tissues from appropriate animal models. Furthermore, frequent comorbid disorders, such as depression, occur often enough within epilepsy patient collectives Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to allow relevant numbers of experiments using a combination of in-vivo physiology and fMRI, on matched groups of epilepsy patients with and without comorbid disorders. In contrast to electrophysiological recordings, which can only be done on epilepsy patients, fMRI studies can be performed on both epilepsy patients, nonepileptic patients with comorbidity (ie, depression or migraine), Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and
control subjects. These experiments will yield Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical unique insights as to the relationship between epilepsy, comorbid disorders, and cognitive processes. They will also allow us to examine the effects of drugs used in other CNS disorders on cognitive processes with high resolution. Conclusion In summary, the study of the neurobiological
basis of epilepsy using approaches that integrate genetic, human functional and behavioral studies, and work on animal models, is important for developing novel therapeutic strategies. It is also one of the few existing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical research approaches that can be utilized to examine the function of the human brain at high temporal, spatial, and cellular resolution. Selected abbreviations and acronyms AED antiepileptic drug AHS Ammon’s horn sclerosis CNS central nervous system fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging SE status epilepticus TLE temporal lobe epilepsy
Epilepsy is one of the most common and heterogeneous neurological conditions, and the molecular pathomechanisms underlying the different seizure Rutecarpine disorders have now been studied intensively for more than two decades.1 There exists a large group of epilepsies that are often labeled as symptomatic, in order to distinguish them from the idiopathic epilepsies that are believed to be mainly of genetic origin. However, with the progress in genetic analysis, it has become more and more obvious that no clear division exists between the two groups of epilepsies.