The amino acid position 175 for Mab 62 is close to the H7 RBS but not within it. This allows the amino acid to be conserved in neutralizing epitopes. Most patients infected with H7N9 HPAI viruses had a Foretinib mouse history of poultry contact . However, most avian species carrying infectious H7N9 viruses are asymptomatic . Symptoms from H7N9 infection
developed rapidly and treatments are effective only when administrated within 5 days after the onset of the symptoms [23, 24]. Therefore, detection of H7 antigens at the earliest stage of infection is of crucial significance to identify infections and reduce mortality in patients. This poses a serious threat to public health and highlights the need for H7 diagnosis. Further, less cases of avian infection with H7N9 were reported than human cases, suggesting there may be other reasons for human infection besides poultry contacts. Serological assays are able to identify the history of mild or asymptomatic infection in avian species or humans, providing critical information for surveillance studies . Hence, efficient serological detection in birds and humans is also important
to control and study H7 HPAI viruses. It was found previously that poultry species carrying AIV antibodies are shedding less virus than SPF poultry upon asymptomatic AIV infection or infection with mild selleck screening library microscopic lesions . Therefore, ideally, diagnostic results of both antigen and antibody detection should be consulted together to create a better understanding of H7 infection among populations. However, applying those high-tech diagnosis tests, such as Real time PCR and virus neutralization, Veliparib clinical trial to routine screening in public populations and birds is neither practical nor cost effective due to the limited availability of equipment and trained manpower. User-friendly rapid tests, such as dot ELISA and lateral flow, are preferred in field investigation and clinical diagnosis in the neighborhood [10, 27]. All these immuno-tests are initially developed from an ELISA assay based on monoclonal antibodies . In the current study, AC-ELISA and competitive ELISA were combined to a dual ELISA with standardized
Mabs for both H7 antigen and antibody detection. High specificity and sensitivity were confirmed for either function in the dual ELISA against H7 Morin Hydrate AIVs. Sensitivity of antigen detection is higher than HA tests and antibody ELISA detects less H7 antibodies than conventional virus neutralization. The combination of two functions in one plate paves the way for an ever simplified rapid test. For antibody detection, the dual ELISA is even easier to prepare than conventional competitive ELISAs. A small amount of baculovirus expressed H7 antigen is sufficient for antibody blocking in the dual ELISA while highly purified and concentrated H7 antigen is required for coating in other cELISAs to minimize unspecific blocking effects .