The experiment was also evaluated

The experiment was also evaluated as repeatable according to the RSDr percentage (relative standard deviation, RSD, of the test results). In addition, the PCR efficiency (80%) and the linearity (R2 = 0.9954) were assessed as acceptable. Following a positive signal observed in qPCR SYBR®Green assay, the second step was to characterise the junction

between the transgenic cassette and the plant genome to confirm the presence of pCAMBIA unauthorised GMOs in food/feed matrices (Fig. 3). Therefore, a DNA walking approach has been developed. In order to supply an integrated approach, an additional oligonucleotide primer, named t35S pCAMBIA b-R, was designed manually, on the conserved region of the t35S pCAMBIA sequence, localised between the t35S pCAMBIA a-R and t35S

pCAMBIA c-R primers previously used for the qPCR SYBR®Green assay (Fig. 1 and Table 2). The specificity of this primer was confirmed in silico via the software wEMBOSS (data not shown). The amplicons resulting from the double semi-nested PCR were visualised on a 1% agarose gel. For each kind of DRT primers mixes Alectinib manufacturer (A–D), amplicons were observed with an approximate size of 300 bp up to 1000 bp (Fig. 2A). The identity of the amplicons was confirmed by direct sequencing of the purified PCR products. The sequencing of the plasmids containing these amplicons allowed identifying the t35S pCAMBIA c-R and UAP-N1/UAP-N2 primers and determining the exact size of the amplicons (408–944 bp) (Fig. 2). All analysed amplicons presented a sequence including

the junction between the pCAMBIA vector and the rice genome. Two transgenic insertions have been detected. For the majority of the amplicons (A2, A3, B1, C2, D1, D2 and D3), Sinomenine the pCAMBIA cassette was integrated on a genomic sequence (OSJNBb0111B07) from the chromosome III of O. sativa japonica Group coding for a putative uncharacterised protein. For the three other amplicons (A1, B2 and C1), the transgene flanking region was localised on a genomic sequence (OSJNBa0016G10) from the chromosome II of O. sativa japonica Group coding for a putative uncharacterised protein. These transgene flanking regions present a shorter left ends compared to the pCAMBIA cassette situated on the chromosome III. This variability of length could be explained by the fact that a left end integrates less precisely than a right end ( Gheysen et al., 1991 and Krizkova and Hrouda, 1998). To confirm the two chromosomal insertions, a PCR amplification using primers annealing to the pCAMBIA construct and the rice chromosome II or III was carried out ( Table 2). The presence of PCR amplification as well as the sequencing of these amplicons allowed verifying properly the transgene flanking regions (data not shown).

25 mg/L NAA and 1% sucrose among the tested rooting media in this

25 mg/L NAA and 1% sucrose among the tested rooting media in this study. In our comparative studies, SH medium was more effective than MS medium in root induction and proliferation. A very similar result was reported in American [35] and Korean ginsengs [30]. It was reported that the high level of ammonium nitrate in MS medium highly suppressed root development in carrot [37]. Choi et al [5] reported that when the ammonium nitrate was omitted

in MS medium, root growth of regenerated ginseng plants was enhanced. The concentration of ammonium nitrate in SH medium was about eight times lower than in MS medium. It seems that the different concentrations of ammonium nitrate in SH and MS medium may result in the different root induction efficiency between the two basal medium. From these observations, we suggest that SH medium, especially one-third strength SH medium

is suitable for root induction and growth of regenerated ginseng plants. Well-developed plantlets with both shoots and roots derived from adventitious roots were transferred to plastic pots (10 cm × 18 cm) containing an artificial soil mixture of peat moss, vermiculite and perlite (2:3:1 v/v) in a growth room (Fig. 2C). The survival rate of the plantlets was about 30% after 3 mo of culture and new leaf began growing (Fig. 2D). The plants regenerated from both wild-type and mutant cell line acclimatized in the growth room (Fig. 3). In conclusion, we have developed an efficient in vitro regeneration protocol for an important medicinal plant of P. ginseng. The protocol described here will allow a relatively rapid mass LY294002 manufacturer production of Korean wild ginseng plants. It takes 6–8 mo from the callus induction of adventitious roots to the plantation of plants. In the present study, we also produced the regenerated plants from the mutant adventitious roots which were obtained by γ-irradiation. The combination of mutation technique by γ-irradiation and plant regeneration by Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase tissue cultures may be

an effective way to ginseng improvement. The protocol established in this study is currently being used for the genetic transformation of this species. All contributing authors declare no conflicts of interest. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2009-0094059). “
“Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is a disease first described by Allen et al. in 1989, which is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs, respiratory distress, a rapid therapeutic response to corticosteroids and the absence of relapse.1 AEP induced by cigarette smoking was reported recently,2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 and it has been reported that there have been many cases of cigarette smoking-induced AEP which showed spontaneous improvement without corticosteroids, following cigarette smoking cessation.7 The pathogenic mechanism of AEP is not well understood.

A second factor to be considered

when deciding between a

A second factor to be considered

when deciding between a dual-chamber or single-chamber device is the detrimental effect of unnecessary right ventricular pacing on morbidity and mortality, which was observed in the early days of dual-chamber ICD therapy 24 and 36. In the meantime, this risk has been substantially reduced by the introduction of algorithms to minimize ventricular pacing 37, 38 and 39. The devices implanted within the OPTION trial were all equipped with SafeR, a well-established algorithm to minimize ventricular pacing, with proved effectiveness in randomized clinical trials 30 and 38. In the OPTION trial, no statistically significant differences in the percent of ventricular pacing was observed between the dual-chamber setting and single-chamber Z-VAD-FMK order setting groups, with a median

ventricular pacing percent of 0%. Furthermore, there were equivalent rates of death or cardiovascular events in both groups. Thus, dual-chamber ICD therapy combined with the SafeR algorithm provides a net benefit by reducing inappropriate shocks selleck products without increasing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Finally, it is generally believed that the implantation of dual-chamber ICDs requires greater expertise. There are reports of an increased incidence of implantation- and device-related complications with dual-chamber ICDs in current clinical care (23), recently confirmed by Peterson et al. (40). In contrast to that and in agreement with the DATAS (Dual Chamber and Atrial Tachyarrhythmias Adverse Events Study) (41), the OPTION trial showed no elevated incidence of device-related

or implantation-related adverse events in the dual-chamber Ureohydrolase group, even disregarding the atrial lead–related complications in the single-chamber group. All patients in the OPTION study were provided with dual-chamber devices. This could slightly overestimate the rates of inappropriate shocks due to AF induced by local irritation from the lead. This study design was chosen because the information from the atrial lead was crucial to determine accurately the appropriateness of the therapy, which represented a central component of our primary endpoint. Moreover, it should be noted that the slow ventricular tachycardia zone setting was different between the groups: this zone was used as a monitor zone for the single-chamber group, while ATP with no shock was recommended for the dual-chamber group. Such a difference must be considered in addition to the treatment difference that is under randomized investigation. Given the small number of inappropriate shocks in the dual-chamber setting group, further subgroup analysis with respect to patients who may benefit most from dual-chamber implantation was not possible. The crossover rate was higher than in some other studies. However, it is not assumed that this has contributed to the positive finding of the trial, because the vast majority of patients switched to the dual-chamber setting group.

Multiple painless, mobile, and solid

Multiple painless, mobile, and solid see more LAPs were found, the biggest being 2 cm in the left cervical and supraclavicular and 3 cm in the bilateral axillary and inguinal regions. The laboratory findings of the patient are summarized in Table 1. Evaluation of the initial laboratory parameters showed mild anemia and leukopenia, a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), a high C-reactive protein (CRP) level, increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a albumin globulin rate less than 1, a high CA-125 level, and

low vitamin B12. The erythrocytes were normochromic normocytic; mild monocytosis (16%) but no atypical cells were seen in the peripheral blood smear. In the analysis of the ascites fluid, the serum ascitic albumin gradient (SAAG) was <1.1 g/dl, the cell count was 1600 leukocytes/mm3 (70–80% mononuclear), the value of adenozine deaminase (ADA) was 60.4 U/l, and the LDH was high (281 U/L). No malignancy finding was found during the cytological

evaluation of the ascites fluid. No bacteriological growth in the ascites fluid culture was observed. She was euthyroid and HIV seronegative. Her hepatitis B and C tests were negative and her coagulation tests were normal. Fecal occult blood revealed a negative result 3 times. No sign of heart failure was detected in both her echocardiography and her physical examination. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral reticulonodullary infiltration (Fig. 1A). On the abdominal USG, there was a LAP of 2 cm in the hepatic hilum and ascites, but no hepatosplenomegaly. The USG scans of the check details axillary, inguinal, and cervical regions also revealed hypoechoic, lobulated, and heterogenous multiple DNA ligase LAPs. Ground-glass density areas in both lungs, especially in the left one, were seen on thoracic CT (Fig. 1B). On abdominal computed tomography (CT) multiple LAPs were observed

in paraaortic region. Ascites, ventral abdominal mesenteric heterogenity and thickness were seen on CT image as well (Fig. 2A). For the exclusion of an occult malignancy, an upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy was performed, and reflux esophagitis was seen. She was consulted to our Gynecology Department to rule out gynecologic malignancies since the serum level of CA-125 was high. A gynecologic examination revealed no pathological finding so a screening PAP smear test and an endometrial curettage were performed. No pathological finding was found in mammographic scan. A supraclavicular lymphadenectomy was performed for a diagnosis. The pathology of the lenfoid tissue and endometrial biopsy showed caseification necrosis in some granulomas. Her PAP smear showed a negative result for malignancy. The intradermally performed purified protein derivative (PPD) test was 15 mm. The direct microscopic examining of induced sputum acid-resistant bacilli (ARB) was negative and sputum cultures for MTB were performed. After all of the diagnostic tests, genital TB became suspicious.

5% MC and −20 °C) These seeds will be available to research orga

5% MC and −20 °C). These seeds will be available to research organisations, for restoring trees to the UK countryside and for increasing tree cover. The Forestry Commission is a key partner, providing advice on target species and help with collection. A priority list of 50 trees and shrubs has been targeted for collection, including: Juniperus communis (common juniper), and the subspecies Juniperus ssp. hemisphaerica, designated selleck chemicals as critically endangered on the IUCN Red List; Cotoneaster cambricus (wild cotoneaster), a rare species with just a handful of wild trees; and Pyrus cordata (Plymouth pear), designated as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List and one of Britain’s

rarest trees. Information on the seed biology (storage and germination) of tree species is sparse beyond the main species of interest to commercial Baf-A1 datasheet forestry (Young and Young, 1992 and Vozzo, 2002). Consequently, the prospects for ex situ seed banking is unclear for the vast majority of the estimated 60,000–100,000

tree species in the world ( Oldfield et al., 1998). Such shortcomings can be addressed, in time, through screening seeds of representative tree species for storage physiology (i.e., desiccation tolerance and longevity) and through the development of predictive models for physiological responses. In all countries it is the case that not all tree species produce seeds that can be stored in conventional seed banks (dry and cold) due to sensitivity of the seeds to desiccation; the so-called recalcitrant response. For example, in Central Amazonia (Brazil) indications are that c. 60% of tree species produce recalcitrant seeds. Over the last 20 years considerable progress has been made in: (i) understanding the mechanisms of desiccation-induced viability loss on drying; (ii) estimating the proportion of the world’s flora that produce such seeds (i.e., diagnosis); and (iii) developing methods that can help conserve such species in ex situ cryo-banks

(i.e., storage biotechnology). In contrast to desiccation tolerant (orthodox) seed, recalcitrant seeds lack the ability to “switch-off” metabolically late in development or to undergo intracellular dedifferentiation (Berjak and Pammenter, 2013), such that these seeds must be stored under moist conditions, Farnesyltransferase where longevity is often curtailed by germination and the proliferation of seed-associated fungi. Reactive oxygen species and programmed cell death have been implicated in desiccation stress in recalcitrant seeds, for example, for Q. robur (English oak) ( Kranner et al., 2006), and during accelerated ageing of orthodox seeds, for example, for Ulmus pumila (Siberian elm) ( Hu et al., 2012), which has led to increased interest in manipulating the gaseous environment during seed storage, including through the use of nitrous oxide ( Iakovoglou et al., 2010). Studies on the mechanistic basis of seed desiccation (in)tolerance are ongoing.

, 2013) weekly

, 2013) weekly Navitoclax chemical structure as a self-reported process of change measure. The BI-AAQ is a 12-item self-report measure designed to assess psychological flexibility specific to body image. Specifically, the scale measures the extent to which one is entangled with difficult body image, the degree to which one avoids or is affected by body-image-related

negative psychological experiences and the extent to which the person engages in values-consistent activities despite negative body image. All items are rated on a 7-point Likert-like scale ranging from 1 (never true) to 7 (always true) and are reverse-scored. Total scores for BI-AAQ range from 12 to 84, with higher scores representing higher Selleck AZD2281 body image flexibility. The BI-AAQ has shown good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = .92), as well as concurrent, criterion-related, and incremental validity in an undergraduate population

(Sandoz et al.). The Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q; Fairburn, 2008) is a 36-item self-report measure that assesses a broad range of eating disorder symptoms over the previous 28 days, including the severity of dietary restraint and concerns about eating, shape, and weight (e.g., “Have you been deliberately trying to limit the amount of food you eat to influence your shape or weight?”). The global score is derived from the sum of all scale items. The EDE-Q is fully supported by internal consistency and test-retest reliability (Luce & Crowther, Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase 1999), as well as concurrent (Fairburn

& Bèglin, 1994) and discriminant (Wilson, Nonas, & Rosenblum, 1993) validity estimates. The EDE-Q has adequate psychometric properties in both clinical and community samples (Fairburn and Bèglin, 1994, Luce and Crowther, 1999 and Wilfley et al., 1997). In a recent study using the EDE-Q, internal consistency was high, with Cronbach’s alphas of .95 for the global score (Aardoom, Dingemans, Slof Op’t Landt, & Van Furth, 2012). Additionally, three binge-eating-related behavioral items in the EDE-Q were used to assess the participants’ monthly binge eating. The three items were “times of eating unusually large amount in past 28 days,” “times of overeating with the sense of having lost control over eating in past 28 days,” and “days of such episodes in past 28 days. The Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Questionnaire-Revised (MAC-R; Mizes et al., 2000) is a 24-item self-report questionnaire that measures three dimensions of disordered eating cognitions: strict weight regulation and fear of weight gain (e.g., “No matter how much I weigh, fats, sweets, breads, and cereals are bad food because they always turn into fat”), self-control as the basis of self-esteem (e.g., “I am proud of myself when I control my urge to eat”), and weight and eating behavior as the basis of approval from others (e.g., “My friends will like me regardless of how much I weigh”).

N95 respirators, goggles, and face shields were not available unt

N95 respirators, goggles, and face shields were not available until 6 days after the outbreak (Reynolds et al., 2006). In contrast, in a tertiary hospital with 1400 beds in Singapore, N95 respirators, gloves, gowns, and goggles were immediately Selleck Galunisertib provided to healthcare workers working in emergency room, intensive care unit, and isolation ward, whereas powered air purified respirators were available for high-risk procedures such as intubation (Gopalakrishna et al., 2004). In a community

hospital in Toronto, in addition to droplet and contact precautions and caring for SARS patients in airborne infection isolation ward, healthcare workers wore double gloves, double gowns, goggles, cap and shoe covers workers in the isolation ward, intensive care unit and emergency room (Dwosh et al., 2003). In Kaohsiung, Taiwan, construction of standard negative-pressure isolation rooms was expedited, and the emergency room was moved outside the hospital complex for patient triage (Liu et al., 2006). In a hospital in Hong Kong, when the demand for personal protective equipment was high in the outbreak setting, their provision to healthcare workers

was stratified according to the risk of exposure to SARS patients (Ho et al., 2003a). In an effort to control nosocomial outbreaks, responses included the temporary closure of wards (Gopalakrishna et al., 2004), outpatient clinics (Liu et al., 2006), inpatient admission (Reynolds et al., 2006), and both inpatient and outpatient services (Nishiura et al., 2005 and Varia et al., Cobimetinib price 2003). Home quarantine of healthcare workers with SARS Oxalosuccinic acid contact was also mandated in some centers (Dwosh et al., 2003 and Gopalakrishna

et al., 2004). The median time between admission of index patients and closure of hospital services was 18.5 days (range, 3–21 days), whereas the median time between admission of index patients and termination of nosocomial outbreaks of SARS was 30 days (range, 17–40 days) (Table 4A, Table 4B and Table 4C). However, it is still uncertain if the persistent detection of SARS-CoV by RT-PCR in specimens from infected patients represented live virus shedding and actually contributed to ongoing nosocomial outbreaks (Chu et al., 2005b). The largest nosocomial outbreak of SARS occurred in a teaching hospital in Hong Kong (Lee et al., 2003). A total of 112 secondary and 26 tertiary cases were epidemiologically linked to the 26-year-old male index patient who presented to ward 8A on 4 March 2003. It was assumed that the use of nebulizer therapy for the index case might have contributed to the large number of secondary cases, with an overall attack rate of SARS of 41% among hospital inpatients (Yu et al., 2005). However, there was no detailed description of outbreak control (Lee et al., 2003).

We have stated in (18) that M  A is equal to the mean of the meas

We have stated in (18) that M  A is equal to the mean of the measured sinusoid FE′FE′. Substituting (22) and (18) into (21), we have an expression for VQVQ equation(23) VQ=Q˙Pλb(FE′,n−MA)Tn.Here we have reached expressions SCH772984 for VIVI, VEVE, and VQVQ in Eqs. (17), (20) and (23), respectively. Substituting them into the right-hand-side of (14), and substituting (18) into the left-hand-side of (14), we have equation(24) VAFE′,n−1−FE′,n+Q˙PλbMA−FE′,nTn=VT,nFE′,n−VDFE′,n−1+∫tbIteI−TDIV˙(t)FI,n(t)dt.This is the conservation of mass equation

for the lung variables that we aim to estimate, expressed in terms of volume change of the indicator gas in a breath-by-breath manner. Our goal is to determine the values of V  A and Q˙P in (24). The measured variables are FE′,n−1FE′,n−1, FE′,nFE′,n, F  I,n(t  ), V  T,n, and M  A; the blood solubility coefficient λ  b is a known constant for the chosen indicator gas. We have previously used the Bohr equation to calculate V  D ( Clifton et al., 2009); here V  D is calculated using the method proposed in Section  4 where both CO2 and the indicator gas were used to achieve a robust estimate of V  D. Using (24), every two successive breaths produce an equation; therefore a total of N   breaths results in N   − 1 equations of two unknown values, V  A and Q˙P. For this set of N   − 1 linear equations, we used the least-squares technique

to determine the values of V  A and Q˙P. Early ventilators such as the Servo 900 (Siemens) were capable of being driven by an auxiliary low pressure gas supply, and so could be fed

by a gas mixer generating Talazoparib solubility dmso sinusoidal indicator concentrations. However, modern ICU ventilators cannot be adapted easily to allow premixed gases to be delivered. Consequently, the indicator gas must be injected into the inspiratory limb of the ventilator “on the fly”. We adapted a novel on-line indicator gas delivery method (Farmery, 2008), where the indicator gas is injected into the patient’s inspiratory breathing flow and mixed in real time immediately before entering the mouth. Two types of indicator gases, O2 and N2O, are injected simultaneously into the patient’s airway flow during inspiration. Two mass flow controllers (MFC, Alicat Scientific, Inc., Vildagliptin USA) were used to deliver the two indicator gases at rates proportional to the subject’s inspiratory flow rate at any instant such that the indicator concentration remained constant within the breath, but could be forced to vary between breaths according to equation(25) FN2O(t)=MN2O+ΔFN2Osin(2πft)FN2O(t)=MN2O+ΔFN2Osin(2πft) equation(26) FO2(t)=MO2+ΔFO2sin(2πft),FO2(t)=MO2+ΔFO2sin(2πft),where FN2O(t)FN2O(t) is the concentration of the injected N2O flow; MN2OMN2O and ΔFN2OΔFN2O are the mean and amplitude of the forcing N2O sinusoid, respectively; FO2(t)FO2(t), MO2MO2, and ΔFO2ΔFO2 are similar denotations for O2. Fig. 2 shows the resulting concentration of the indicator gas O2.

Based on emergence and loss patterns, the floods had a net effect

Based on emergence and loss patterns, the floods had a net effect of redistributing sediments from areas Adriamycin solubility dmso exposed to river currents at all stages to more protected areas

which only experience significant flow during high water. Between 1975 and 1989 both growth and loss occurred. Rapid emergence occurred between 1975 and 1979, faster than any other period in the historical record. Loss occurred again in 1979–1989, and almost all areas that had emerged in 1975–1979 disappeared. In 1989, land area in LP6 was only 0.01 km2 greater than it had been in 1975. This dynamism appears to be real rather than a result of differences in water levels between datasets, because water levels in 1975 and 1979 were only 3 cm different, and in 1989 the stage is only 16 cm higher than in the 1979 photograph. Overall, land area in 1989 was 45% smaller than it had been in 1940 (Table 3). The largest losses took place along the Minnesota and Wisconsin shorelines and the Island 81 complex, including the complete loss of its

middle portion. The only area in LP6 where net growth occurred was in the Mobile Islands. Between 1895 and 1989, mid-channel island and bank-attached land exhibited parallel patterns of growth and loss (i.e., if islands lost area during a period, Dasatinib nmr bank-attached land lost a similar percent of area). The only exception to this pattern was 1962–1975, when bank-attached land lost 24% of its area relative to 1962, but islands increased in area by 17% relative to 1962. 1962–1975 corresponds with the period in which Lower Mobile Island emerged. Land emergence prevailed from 1989 to 2010

(Fig. 4), with more rapid growth in mid-channel islands than bank-attached land. Since 1989, the Island 81 complex substantially infilled, and new islands are developing downstream in areas that were emergent and contiguous with Island 81 in the 1895 and 1931 surveys. Overall, by 2010, the area of the Island 81 complex increased 77% relative to its 1989 land area (Table Anidulafungin (LY303366) 3). The Mobile Islands increased 146% during the period, with lower Mobile Island accounting for most of the growth. A new island (“Gull Island”, Fig. 5) emerged between the Mobile Islands and the Island 81 complex and rapidly grew to ∼2.8 times larger than the Mobile Islands. This new island emerged following the 1993 flood, first appearing as a sand bar with a large tree embedded. The island enlarged significantly following the 1997 flood (Jefferson, personal observation). Gull Island developed in an area that was largely submerged in 1895 but had emerged by 1931. By 2010, its area was nearly the same size as it had been in 1931. Gull Island also lies on top of and between submerged wing dikes, which were built in a secondary channel largely obstructed by a closing dike. Mid-channel islands comprised 62% of LP6 land area in 1895, decreased to 50% by 1962, but subsequently increased to 67% of LP6 land area by 2010.

As currently defined, the Holocene is by far the shortest geologi

As currently defined, the Holocene is by far the shortest geological epoch within the established geological time scale, limited to roughly the last 11,500 calendar years (10,000 14C years). As Zalasiewicz et al. (2011b) noted, the “Holocene

is really just the last of a series of interglacial climate phases that have punctuated the severe icehouse climate of the past 2 Myr. We distinguish it as an epoch for practical purposes, in that many of the surface bodies of sediment Dabrafenib price on which we live—the soils, river deposits, deltas, coastal plains and so on—were formed during this time.” As such, the Holocene is a relatively arbitrary construct that would not have appeared buy Epacadostat particularly dramatic or lasted long if humans had not contributed

to biological and ecological changes around the world. Defining an Anthropocene epoch that begins in AD 1850, AD 2000, or another very recent date would ignore a host of archeological and paleoecological data sets. It will also exacerbate the arbitrary and short-lived nature of the Holocene. In examining the evidence for human transformation of the global biosphere during three phases of human history—the Paleolithic, Neolithic, and Industrial ages—Ellis (2011:1012–1013) had this to say of the Neolithic: Agricultural human systems set the stage for sustained human population growth for millennia, from a few million in 10,000 BCE to billions today. More importantly, these systems are sustained by an entirely novel biological process—the many clearing of native vegetation and herbivores

and their replacement by engineered ecosystems populated with domesticated plant and/or animal species whose evolution is controlled by human systems. Were these agroecosystems to attain sufficient global extent, endure long enough and alter ecosystem structure and biogeochemical processes intensively enough, these alone may represent a novel transformation of the biosphere justifying a new geological epoch (references omitted from original). In this paper, I have added to the widespread changes caused by early agricultural and pastoral peoples to Earth’s terrestrial ecosystems, documenting a post-Pleistocene proliferation of anthropogenic shell midden soils in coastal and other aquatic settings worldwide. The global intensification of fishing and maritime economies near the end of the Pleistocene adds nearshore marine habitats to the list of ecosystems Homo sapiens has altered for millennia. By the Terminal Pleistocene or Early Holocene, agricultural and maritime peoples together had widespread and transformative effects on the terrestrial and nearshore ecosystems they lived in.