Among those infants who initiated breast-feeding, the proportion<

Among those infants who initiated breast-feeding, the proportion

exclusively breast-feeding declined from approximately 70% during the first week of life to 0% by the 8 month visit. The observed rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in the entire cohort was 6.5% (95% CI: 1.4%-17.9%). The observed HIV-1 incidence among breast-fed infants Quisinostat mw was 0% (95% CI: 0%-8.9%).

Conclusion: The overall transmission rate was relatively low, suggesting effectiveness of antiretroviral transmission prophylaxis. the infant feeding choices made may reflect knowledge gained through the educational program and infant feeding counseling provided. Ensuring HIV-1-infected women receive appropriate HIV-1 treatment (for those who meet criteria for treatment) and access to known efficacious interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, are essential.”
“Chinese native buffaloes have faced the threat of extinction, along with an increase in crossbreeding with domesticated river buffaloes; consequently, conservation of local buffalo genetic resources has become a priority. A Chinese native breed, Jianghan, is often crossed intentionally and unintentionally with imported breeds from India and Pakistan, Murrah, and Nili-Ravi. A total of 128 buffaloes of the breeds Jianghan, Murrah, and Nili-Ravi and their

presumed hybrid offspring were genotyped for 10 microsatellite markers. Heterozygosity and Wright’s F-statistics were calculated to determine the genetic variation in those populations. The observed average heterozygosities ranged from 0.836 (Murrah) to 0.986 (Jianghan), higher than the expected heterozygosities STI571 and all the inbreeding values within the populations were negative. The genetic distances between the presumed hybrid buffaloes and the two imported river type dairy buffalo breeds (Murrah and Nili-Ravi) were lower than with the native Jianghan, indicating strong contributions of the imported breeds to this presumed hybrid buffalo population. This information will be useful for the development of rational breeding for the dairy buffalo industry

and for conservation strategies for the Jianghan buffalo.”
“The Raman light to vibration coupling coefficients C-alpha beta of the l=0 and the l=2 spheroidal phonon modes of quasifree spherical CdSe/CdS core/shell nanoparticles are calculated. Based on the Lamb model, the displacement PCI-32765 nmr vectors of acoustic phonon modes are obtained and the C-alpha beta is also derived. The Raman scattering from quasifree CdSe/CdS nanoparticles with various inner radii is investigated. For the l=0 acoustic modes, the bond polarizability model is adopted to calculate C-alpha beta, whose peak positions shift toward lower frequencies with the increase in the inner radius. It could be accounted for by the decrease in the averaged longitudinal and transverse sound velocities. Moreover, the ratio of the coefficients A(alpha beta delta delta) {Montagna and Dusi, [Phys. Rev.

Linear multiple regression methods were employed to estimate the

Linear multiple regression methods were employed to estimate the magnitude of association between BMI classes and HQoL variables, adjusting for disability and other covariates.

Less than 1% of men and just 3.5% of women were classified as underweight while 52.2% of women and

65.9% of men were classified as overweight or obese. For all SF-36 health dimensions, people with BMI scores in the healthy range reported, on average, higher health-related HQoL scores than underweight and obese people, and HQoL scores decreased with the degree of obesity. Although overweight and obesity were associated with decreasing levels of both physical and emotional well-being, the deterioration in health status was significantly more evident in the physical than in the mental, social or emotional dimensions.

Low and high BMIs were associated with decreasing levels of both physical and emotional well-being, but the click here deterioration in health status was more consistent in the physical than in other dimensions.”
“BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of

UV radiation on the indirect photodegradation of metronidazole (MNZ) conducting a kinetic study of the process in the presence of radical promoter (H2O2) and photosensitizer (Sens) promoters (duroquinone, tetrahydroxyquinone, tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone, 4-carboxy-benzophenone, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 4-hydroxybenzophenone, and 4,4′-dihydroxybenzophenone) was investigated. RESULTS: The electron-donating groups S63845 research buy of photosensitizers may favor MNZ photodegradation through electron transfer. However, the photosensitizers studied showed low effectiveness of MNZ photodegradation in aqueous phase. The presence of H2O2 substantially increased MNZ photodegradation rate, which was enhanced by increasing the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the system. The contribution of direct photolysis of MNZ in the UV/H2O2 system was drastically decreased with increasing H2O2 concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: The low effectiveness obtained with most of the Sens used demonstrates that metronidazole cannot HMG-CoA Reductase inhibitor be photoxidized by indirect photooxidation in aqueous solution. Copyright (C) 2012 Society

of Chemical Industry”
“This study aimed to assess the agreement between patient and proxy ratings of Quality of life (QoL) in patients with psychotic mental illnesses.

The abbreviated version of the WHO quality of life scale (WHOQOL-BREF) and 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36) were administered to patient-family proxy pairs of 81 schizophrenia patients with mild symptoms and 50 euthymic bipolar disorder patients. Paired t-tests and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to evaluate the level of agreement between patient and proxy ratings of QoL.

At the group level, small standardized differences (0.0-0.3 for schizophrenia, 0.0-0.5 for bipolar disorder) between patient and proxy mean scores were found for most domains in both QoL measures.

Histopathologically, no eosinophils were infiltrated into and aro

Histopathologically, no eosinophils were infiltrated into and around the subepidermal bullae. Immunofluorescence revealed deposited and circulating immunoglobulin (Ig)G anti-basement membrane zone antibodies. Immunoblot assays using various antigen Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor sources and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that IgG antibodies in this case reacted with unique epitopes between NC16a and C-terminal domains on the 120-kDa LAD-1, the extracellular truncated form of BP180. Three observations were unique in our case. First, the

distribution of bullae in our patient was limited to the hemiplegic side. Second, there was no apparent erythema clinically and no eosinophilic infiltration histopathologically. Third, the patient achieved remission without the use of oral corticosteroids. The unusual

NSC23766 research buy epitopes in this case may contribute to these phenomena.”
“Subamol (1), a novel Cinnamomum sesquiterpenoid, has been isolated from Cinnamomum subavenium (Lauraceae), and its structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis.”
“Lately, long-chain primary alcohols have been investigated in depth on account of their biological activities. In particular, 1-octacosanol (C28H57OH), the main component of policosanol, the hypolipidaemic fatty alcohol mixture obtained from sugar cane wax, has been the subject of a multitude of pharmacological studies. The aim of this work was to search a convenient synthetic protocol for the preparation of 1-octacosanol in a gram scale. The key step was a Wittig reaction between the octadecyltriphenylphosphonium ylide and the methyl 10-oxodecanoate. Some steps were further improved by power ultrasound and microwave irradiation, either alone or in combination. Our methodology is suitable for a rapid generation of homologues Selleckchem LY3023414 by varying the chain length in the alkyl halide. Due to the high commercial value, a series of 1-octacosanol samples, either isolated from natural sources or from synthesis (different origin and suppliers), were analysed by gas chromatography-combustion-isotopic

ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) and according to the carbon isotopic content, classified on the basis of their origin.”
“A novel synthesis of 2-(1Z)-(3-hydroxy-3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dienyl)-1,4-benzenediol and 1-(3′-methoxypropanoyl)-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzene has been carried out by making use of an easily available starting material, acceleration by MW irradiation and the use of water as a green solvent in the key steps.”
“Investigation of the aerial parts of Sisymbrium irio L. (Cruciferea) collected in northern Jordan afforded two new compounds, sitosteryl-6′-O-undecanoate–D-glucoside (1) and (Z)-8,11,12-trihydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid (2), in addition to 12 known compounds, 10 of which are reported for the first time from the plant.

The molecular weights and NBE-CH2OH incorporation ratios of poly(

The molecular weights and NBE-CH2OH incorporation ratios of poly(NBE/NBE-CH2OH) were adjustable to be 1.91-5.37 x 10(5) g/mol and 9.5-41.1 mol % -OH units by using catalysts 1-6. The achieved copolymers were confirmed to be vinyl-addition type, noncrystalline and have good thermal stability (T-d = 380-410 degrees C). (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 2008-2016, 2011″
“Background: Telomerase activity in precancerous conditions of lung adenocarcinomas has not been well studied. This study is designed to investigate the role of telomerase in premalignant lesions of urethane-induced mouse lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: We harvested A/J mouse

lung tissues at 3, 6, 9, 12, 28, 41, and 48 weeks after intraperitoneal urethane treatment, and classified each lesion Cell Cycle inhibitor in terms of histologic findings. We examined telomerase activity using a modified version of the telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay using both gel-based and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay methods. An immunohistochemical analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was performed. Results: In urethane-induced mouse lung tissues, it was sequentially developed from hyperplasia, adenoma, and eventually to adenocarcinoma. Telomerase activity began to show a positive level in tissues with no histologically visible nodule after urethane administration. It

revealed a statistically significant increase in hyperplasia compared to CYT387 solubility dmso the “”control”" lung tissue (p<0.05), which was proportionally elevated relative to adenoma and adenocarcinoma. There was a direct correlation between telomerase activity and the PCNA labeling index (p<0.05). Conclusions: The elevation of telomerase activity in normal-appearing lung lesions is thought to be a possible marker of early detection of pulmonary adenocarcinoma.”
“To evaluate the results of abdominal sacrohysteropexy using polypropylene mesh in women with uterovaginal prolapse, wishing

to preserve their uteri.

Prospective observational study.

Tertiary referral Gynecology GSK-J4 centre.

Thirty-three women with symptomatic uterovaginal prolapse operated on by the same surgeon.

Sacrohysteropexy performed using polypropylene mesh extending between the back of the uterus at the uterosacral ligaments and the sacrum.

Subjective and objective relief of uterine prolapse and operative and post-operative complications.

The mean age of the women was 46 years (range 29-65). All were multiparous with mean weight of 83.3 kg (70-96). Pelvic organ prolapse (POP-Q) stage 2 was found in 27 cases (81.8%) and stage 3 in six women (12.2%). Mean operative time was 45.76 min (30-75), and mean hospital stay was 2.45 days. One case suffered rectal injury, one case had median sacral vein injury, both were repaired immediately. Two cases had delayed voiding recovery. The mean follow up time was 6 months.

She was treated with repetitive thrombolysis after surgical embol

She was treated with repetitive thrombolysis after surgical embolectomy of the brachial artery. The second patient was symptomatic with splenic infarction and mesenteric ischemia. She was treated with Belnacasan a single cycle of systemic thrombolysis followed by ileocoecal resection. The third patient presented with a TAMT obstructing the left common carotid artery, causing ischemic stroke. After systemic thrombolysis, a reduction in

thrombus size was documented; however, the patient died later, of acute heart failure, during the clinical course. On follow-up 6 months after the incidences, the 2 surviving patients were in good condition and free of thromboembolic events. We show that systemic thrombolytic therapy can be performed successfully in patients with TAMT.”

determine the efficacy of light-adjustable intraocular lenses (IOL) in correcting residual spherical and cylindrical errors in patients with axial myopia.

SETTING: Center for Vision Science, Ruhr University Eye Clinic, Bochum, Germany.

DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.

METHODS: Light-adjustable Prexasertib mw IOLs were implanted in eyes with axial myopia and treated with spatial irradiance profiles delivered by a digital light-delivery device to induce a target spherical and/or spherocylindrical refractive change. Once the desired correction was achieved, the power of the IOL was locked in (ie, photo locking). The manifest refraction, uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), and corrected distance visual FG-4592 chemical structure acuity (CDVA) were determined 1, 6, and 12 months after lock-in to determine the achieved refractive corrections and their stability.

RESULTS: Twelve months postoperatively, 20 (96%) of the 21 eyes studied were

within +/- 0.50 diopter (D) of the intended refractive outcome and 17 (81%) were within +/- 0.25 D. One eye had a 0.325 D change in mean refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE). The change in MRSE in the other 20 eyes was less than 0.250 D between 1 month after lock-in and the 3-, 6-, and 12-month postoperative visits.

CONCLUSIONS: The light-adjustable IOL reduced postoperative spherical and cylindrical errors of up to 2.00 D. Postoperative refractive errors were successfully corrected, and there was a significant improvement in UDVA with concomitant maintenance of CDVA. The achieved refractive change was stable after the adjustment and lock-in procedures.”
“Cells need to adapt to the external environment in order to survive. Signal transduction pathways are crucial mechanisms that allow cells to sense and respond to extracellular stimuli. Among the signal transduction pathways, we point out the cascades mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The MAPKs are conserved from yeast to human and play relevant roles in the physiology of the cell. In pathogenic fungi these MAPK pathways control virulence factors.

Conclusion: PCA may be useful as an active ingredient for topical

Conclusion: PCA may be useful as an active ingredient for topical applications for a hypopigmenting effect. MPC has potential as a hypopigmenting agent but requires rather invasive methods for its delivery to the target cells. (C) 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

selleck screening library rights reserved.”
“We examine the application of the maximum entropy production principle for describing ecosystem biogeochemistry. Since ecosystems can be functionally stable despite changes in species composition, we use a distributed metabolic network for describing biogeochemistry, which synthesizes generic biological structures that catalyse reaction pathways, but is otherwise organism

independent. Allocation of biological structure and regulation of biogeochemical reactions is determined via solution of an optimal control problem in which entropy production is maximized. However, because synthesis of biological structures cannot occur if entropy production is maximized instantaneously, we propose that information stored within the metagenome allows biological systems to maximize entropy production when averaged over time. This differs from abiotic systems that maximize entropy Linsitinib production at a point in space-time, which we refer to as the steepest descent pathway. It is the spatio-temporal averaging that allows biological systems to outperform abiotic processes in entropy buy EPZ015666 production, at least in many situations. A simulation of a methanotrophic system is used to demonstrate the approach. We conclude with a brief discussion on the implications of viewing ecosystems as self-organizing molecular machines that function to maximize entropy production at the ecosystem level of organization.”
“Background: The association between cocaine use and depression has been frequently observed. However, less is known about the significance of depression in the treatment of cocaine use disorders. This study examined possible interrelations between drug use and depression severity among cocaine-dependent patients in psychosocial treatments for cocaine dependence.


Monthly assessed drug use and depression severity scores of N=487 patients during 6-month psychosocial treatments for cocaine dependence were analyzed using hybrid latent growth models.

Results: Results indicated a moderate but statistically significant (z = 3.13, p<.01) influence of depression severity on increased drug use in the upcoming month, whereas drug use did not affect future depression severity.

Conclusions: Findings suggest that depression symptoms are an important predictor of drug use outcomes during psychosocial treatments for cocaine dependence and, hence, underline the importance of adequately addressing depression symptoms to improve treatment outcomes. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

By contrast, only risk-taking was associated with frequency of co

By contrast, only risk-taking was associated with frequency of consumption, and this was found specifically in the control group.

Conclusions: These findings provide important information regarding the potential role of distinct behavioral components of impulsivity in drinking behavior, and highlight unique relevance of attentional impairments to drinking behavior in those with ADHD. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The effect of the total volumetric power input under different aeration and agitation intensities on pellet morphology and glucoamylase production by Aspergillus niger AB1.13 was investigated in a 28 L

stirred tank reactor. The pellet macro-morphology including pellet size and concentration was determined by the laser diffraction technique and digital

image analysis. The pellet micro-morphology including pellet internal and surface structure was characterized by microscopic image analysis of pellet slices and sedimentation velocity measurements. The total volumetric power input, which comprises this website the volumetric power input by aeration and agitation, was kept constant for all cultivations, while the volumetric power input by aeration increased by the same degree as the volumetric power input by agitation decreased. Results revealed a notable variation in morphological data between

pellets grown at different ratios of aeration to agitation, by which glucoamylase production yields were correspondingly altered. An increasing ratio of the volumetric power input by aeration resulted in a significant decrease in pellet size, a considerable increase in pellet concentration, a less compact surface structure of the pellets and a favorable production of glucoamylase. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Tadalafil GSI-IX mouse 40 mg orally once daily, was shown to be well-tolerated and efficacious for pulmonary arterial hypertension in a 16-week, double-blind, placebo (PBO)-controlled trial. Inclusion criteria included the option for background bosentan. Analyses of tadalafil in treatment-naive patients and as add-on to bosentan were pre-specified. Objectives were to provide safety and efficacy data for both groups.

METHODS: Groups analyzed included: treatment-naive + PBO; treatment-naive + tadalafil; background bosentan + PBO; and background bosentan + tadalafil. Patients randomized to tadalafil or PBO (N = 405) were analyzed by bosentan use (yes = 216, no = 189). Treatment differences in 6-minute walk distance (6MWD, PBO-adjusted), functional class (FC), clinical worsening (CW) and adverse events were assessed. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are presented for FC and CW.

neurology patient database at the Children’s Hospital of Philadel

neurology patient database at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia was searched using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code for infantile spasms, and 50 patients were randomly chosen for chart review. We identified 31 patients receiving either adrenocorticotropic hormone or topiramate monotherapy (adrenocorticotropic hormone n = 12, topiramate n = 19) as a first-line treatment for infantile spasms. A total of 26 patients were symptomatic and 5 cryptogenic. Six patients treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone had resolution of clinical

spasms and hypsarrhithmia within a month, but 3 relapsed. Of the 19 patients treated with topiramate, 4 patients eventually, though over a period of 0, 1, 8, or 69 months, had resolution of spasms and hypsarrhythmia.”
“Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease that is the most common of a rare group of disorders collectively termed AZD6244 MAPK inhibitor familial hereditary periodic fever syndromes, also known as autoinflammatory syndromes. FMF is predominantly affecting people of Mediterranean descent and clinically characterized by intermittent attacks of fever with peritonitis and abdominal pain, pleuritis, arthritis, or erysipelas-like rashes. Amyloidosis due to chronic inflammation

progressing to renal failure is one of the most serious potential complications of this disease.

Patients with inflammatory diseases, Glutaminase inhibitor Such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, and conditions with chronic subclinical inflammation, like obesity and diabetes mellitus, are now considered to have an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular Nirogacestat complications. FMF is also an inflammatory disease, and it is accepted that even during attack-free periods significant inflammatory reaction continues. However, whether this inflammatory, process causes premature atherosclerosis

is not known due to a lack of data.

Different studies have investigated the association between the fibrinolytic and inflammatory process Parameters. PAI-1 is paracrine secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, thereby playing a possible role in the adiposity-related inflammation and atherosclerosis. The patients with IRS have higher values of fibrinogen, factor VII, VIII, Von Willebrand factor and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor (PAI) compared to control subjects. So that we aimed in this study to investigate whether FMF Patients with/without amyloidosis and with M694V homozygote mutation, have increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular complications and to determine the strength of association between MEFV gene-mutation types. To Our knowledge, this is the first case control and cross-sectional study in the pediatric age groups.”
“Objective: To compare dietary intake of micronutrients by peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients according to their nutrition and inflammatory statuses.

Overall, patients showed a more immature (P = 0 001) and/or neuro

Overall, patients showed a more immature (P = 0.001) and/or neurotic (P = 0.006) defensive SB525334 inhibitor profile. Higher scores of denial (P = 0.044), somatization

(P = 0.009), and undoing (P = 0.032) defenses were associated with poorer HRQoL, independently of the anticipated significant associations of clinical and psychological distress variables with impaired HRQoL. Somatization was strongly independently associated with more severe self-reported dyspnoea.

COPD patients exhibit a relatively immature and neurotic defensive profile. Clinicians and consultation-liaison psychiatrists should consider the patients’ underlying personality structure, especially somatization tendencies, since it is independently associated with HRQoL and dyspnoea severity.”

Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and hemiarthroplasty (HA) are treatment choices for end-stage shoulder osteoarthritis. The decision of whether to use TSA or HA is controversial. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of TSA and HA for shoulder osteoarthritis.

Methods: We conducted a search for clinical studies that had been published in any language in December 2012 LDK378 or before. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and several other databases. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled clinical studies that evaluated different methods were included. At least two review authors independently performed the study selection, data collection, and data extraction. The software Revman 5.1 was used for the statistical analysis.

Results: This study included 4 clinical trials. Two of the trials were buy 4-Hydroxytamoxifen published clinical trials, and the other 2 clinical trials were presented as unpublished abstracts. A total of 146 patients with 153 shoulders were included in the trials. Compared with HA,

TSA presents with a higher UCLA shoulder scale (MD 3.10, 95% CI 1.13-5.08) and a higher ASES (MD 10.17, 95% CI 1.40-18.87). There was no significant difference between TSA and HA for revision (RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.10-1.19), WOOS (MD 9.10, 95% CI -2.72 to 20.92), and incidence of instability (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.19-3.98). HA had a lower operation time (MD 39.00, 95% CI 17.05-60.95).

Conclusion: The available evidence suggests that TSA is more effective than HA for patients with shoulder arthritis. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The concentration of boron-oxygen defects generated in compensated p-type Czochralski silicon has been measured via carrier lifetime measurements taken before and after activating the defect with illumination. The rate of formation of these defects was also measured. Both the concentration and the rate were found to depend on the net doping rather than the total boron concentration.

The change of SCORAD index was analyzed as the primary efficacy e

The change of SCORAD index was analyzed as the primary efficacy end-point by general linear model selleck compound and piecewise linear mixed model. The SCORAD index was reduced with both SC and CS sequence regimens. In particular, index reduction with the C was more than that associated with S regimen; this difference increased as time lapsed. The glucosamine combination was predicted to cause an additive decrease in the mean percent change of the SCORAD index (similar to 6%), with decreasing interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 cytokine levels but without increasing treatment-related

adverse events. This study suggests that the C would produce better clinical outcomes than the S regimen in patients with click here atopic dermatitis, although confirmatory clinical trials are warranted to determine the effect of combination.”
“Background: In asthma, multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) detects abnormalities that are related to disease severity, including increased bronchial wall thickness. However, whether these abnormalities could be related to asthma control has not been investigated yet. Objective: Our goal was to determine which changes in airways could be linked to disease control. Methods: Twelve patients with poor asthma control were included and received a salmeterol/fluticasone propionate combination daily for 12 weeks. Patients underwent clinical, functional,

and MDCT examinations before and after the treatment period. MDCT examinations were performed using a low-dose protocol at a controlled lung volume (65% TLC). Bronchial lumen (LA) and wall areas (WA) were evaluated at a segmental and subsegmental

level using BronCare software. Lung density was measured at the base of the lung. Baseline and end-of-treatment data were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. GDC-0068 cost Results: After the 12-week treatment period, asthma control was achieved. Airflow obstruction and air trapping decreased as assessed by the changes in FEV(1) (p < 0.01) and expiratory reserve volume (p < 0.01). Conversely, LA and WA did not vary significantly. However, a median decrease in LA of >10% was observed in half of the patients with a wide intra- and intersubject response heterogeneity. This was concomitant with a decrease in lung density (p < 0.02 in the anteroinferior areas). Conclusions: MDCT is insensitive for demonstrating any decrease in bronchial wall thickness. This is mainly due to changes in bronchial caliber which may be linked to modifications of the elastic properties of the bronchopulmonary system under treatment. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with markers for allergy and asthma severity in children with asthma. However, its association with Chinese adult asthmatics has not been studied.