Scheme 1 The general reaction of luminol to produce light for det

Scheme 1.The general reaction of luminol to produce light for determination of aqueous Fe(II). Fe2+(aq) ��catalyzes�� the second step in this reaction scheme. The light emitted after the third step proportional to [Fe2+(aq)] within a certain concentration …An FIA-CL instrument has been developed (FeLume �C Waterville Analytical, Waterville, ME) that may be configured to determine several analytes (Co2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Cr2+, NO3-, PO43- and H2O2). The FeLume has been used specifically to determine sub-nanomolar concentrations of ferrous iron in both marine and freshwaters [30,42,43].When an iron-containing sample is free of organic matter, the relationship between chemiluminescence and [Fe(aq)2+] is approximately linear between 1 �C 1,000 nM Fe(aq)2+.

In the presence of fulvic acid, the linear dynamic range (LDR) is reduced to 1 �C 32 nM [34]. It has been suggested that FIA-CL analysis of freshwater samples will not work well due to interferences by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) [44], while in coastal seawater, O’Sullivan et al. [32] found that DOM reduced the sensitivity of FIA-CL analysis of Fe(II). Similar results were obtained by Ussher et al. [36] in their evaluation of the effect of model ligands on Fe(II) analysis in seawater. Recently, researchers demonstrated other potential interferences that may occur with redox-active metals that produce CL of luminol [45] or species that interfere with the peroxy-luminol reaction leading to CL (step 2 in Scheme 1) [46].Coordination of Fe2+ by organic chelators and low pH both contribute to stabilizing iron against oxidation by O2 [47-49].

Carfilzomib Such stabilization may either depress or enhance the CL and resultant signal returned by the FeLume. Tight coordination of Fe2+ by organic species that persist in the mixing chamber of the FeLume results in lowering of the signal due to slower formation of the ROS required for CL of luminol. Low pH may produce a higher signal by slowing pre-injection oxidation of Fe2+(aq), yielding more H2O2 in the mixing chamber. Species that have strong affinity for ROS like ascorbate also act to suppress the CL of luminol by scavenging radicals necessary for step 2 in the mechanism shown in Scheme 1.Typical injection peaks (Figure 1) from this work demonstrate that certain organic compounds reduce the sensitivity of ferrous iron quantitation. The ��doublet�� peak shown in Figure 1 (typical at nanomolar [Fe2+]) is due to the acid in the samples overcoming the buffer capacity of the luminol solution. Lower pH decreases the signal by reducing luminol dehydrogenation (step 1 in the mechanism in Scheme 1) at nanomolar [Fe2+], but otherwise does not alter the relationship between signal and [Fe2+].

kit, incubated with chemically modified trypsin at a proportion o

kit, incubated with chemically modified trypsin at a proportion of 1,100, and subsequently incu bated at room temperature for 18 h. R3 microcolumns for desalting The Poros Oligo R3 reversed phase resin was suspended in 70% acetonitrile. The R3 beads were loaded onto constricted GELoader tips containing a C8 microdisc and gentle air pressure was applied to pack the beads in order to obtain R3 microcolumns of 3 mm. Each acidified sample was loaded onto an R3 microcolumn. The R3 microcolumns were subsequently washed with 30 ul of 0. 1% TFA, and the peptides were eluted from the Poros R3 col umn using 30 ul of 70% acetonitrile, 0. 1% TFA. The phosphopeptides were subsequently ressuspended in 0. 5 ul of 100% formic acid and 10 ul of prior to nanoLC MS analysis.

Dimethyl labeling After digestion, the total protein extract Drug_discovery was quantified by the BCA method and the volume was adjusted to 100 ul of 100 mM TEAB. CH2O or 4% CD2O or 4% 13CD2O was added, followed by the addition of 4 ul of 600 mM NaBH3CN or 4 ul of 600 mM NaBD3CN. The mixture was incubated for 1 h at room temperature. The reaction was quenched with 16 ul of 1% ammonia and 8 ul formic acid was added. The differen tially labeled samples from three different time points were pooled and desalted using microcolumns filled with Poros R3 beads. This sample was subjected to vacuum centrifu gation and stored at ?20 C for further use. Titanium dioxide chromatography The pooled samples were subjected to the phosphoenrichement procedure by mixing with TiO2 beads, which were ressuspended in loading buffer.

15 mg of TiO2 beads were washed in loading buffer and loaded into the sample tube. The mixture was incubated for 15 min at ambient temperature under agitation. The mixture was centrifuged for 60 s at 12,000 g and the supernatant was collected, dessalted, and lyophilized. The TiO2 beads, complexed with phosphopeptides, were washed twice with 500 ul of loading buffer and, subsequently, with 30 ul of washing buffer. The phosphopeptides were eluted using 50 ul of ammonium water followed by 10 ul of 30% acetonitrile. The eluent was acid ified by adding 5 ul of 100% formic acid prior to the dessalting step. Offline TSK amide 80 HILIC peptide fractionation Peptide fractionation was performed using a neutral TSK Amide 80 HILIC and a mobile phase containing TFA. The purified peptides were ressuspended in 90% acetonitrile, 0.

1% TFA and loaded onto a 320 um inner 450 um outer diameter �� 17 cm microcapillary column packed with TSK Amide 80 using an Agilent 1200 Series HPLC. The HPLC gradient was 100 60% of solvent 90% acetonitrile 0. 1% TFA in water for 42 min at a flow rate of 6 uL min. Fractions were collected every minute and com bined into 8 12 fractions depending on the intensity of UV detection measured at 210. 8 nm. The fractions were dried by vacuum centrifugation. Nano LC MS Nano LC MS experiments were performed using a 7 tesla LTQ FT mass spectrometer. The sample was applied onto an EASY nano LC system. T

1 is involved in many biological responses such as tumorigenesis,

1 is involved in many biological responses such as tumorigenesis, DNA damage response, lipid metabolism, and gluconeogenesis by targeting different substrates for degradation, which include p53, c Jun, Ets1 2, TRB3, and TORC2. Particularly, in a DNA damage responsive pathway, COP1 functions downstream of ATM ATR kinases by direct phosphorylation, but the precise mechanism remains to be determined. Considering a wide range of COP1 action in various biological responses, components and pathways downstream of COP1 are not fully under stood yet. To better understand the COP1 signaling pathway, we searched for novel COP1 interacting proteins by yeast two hybrid screening and identified FIP200 as one such candidate.

FIP200 was first reported as a regulator of the retinoblastoma protein, identified as a tumor suppressor in human breast cancer, and recently rediscovered as a mammalian counterpart of Atg17 in the yeast Atg1 Atg13 Atg17 complex. The mamma lian ULK1 Atg13 FIP200 complex func tions downstream of mTOR, and, together with the Beclin 1 Vps34 kinase pathway and the Atg5 Atg12 and LC3 conjugation systems, plays a key role in the induc tion of autophagy, an intracellular lysosomal degradation system for cytoplasmic proteins and organelles. In this study, we investigated the interaction between COP1 and FIP200 by the yeast two hybrid assay, the GST pulldown assay, and the Split GFP assay. Proliferat ing mammalian cells expressed several different forms of FIP200 protein, and one of them was downregulated Brefeldin_A by the ectopic overexpression of COP1 protein, suggesting that COP1 modulates FIP200 associated biological activities in a certain occasion, which may contribute to the complexity of the COP1 associated function.

Results Identification of FIP200 as an interactor with COP1 To explore the novel signaling pathway mediated by COP1, we sought a candidate for interactors with COP1 by yeast two hybrid screening of the human K562 erythroleu kemia cDNA library. Out of 1. 6 �� 106 transformants, we chose 13 potential clones that repeatedly exhibited positive signals. These clones contained part of two independent cDNAs, one for Jun D and one for FIP200 RB1 indu cible Coiled Coil 1. The presence of the former cDNA was anticipated given that c Jun is a sub strate of COP1 and that JunD is highly homologous to c Jun, both of which belong to the same family of AP1 transcription factors.

The latter component, FIP200, also termed RB1CC1, was originally shown to control retino blastoma protein and functions as a tumor suppressor in human breast cancer. FIP200 was recently rediscov ered as a component of the mammalian ULK1 Atg13 FIP200 complex and plays an important role in the induction of autophagy. Therefore, we decided to investigate the COP1 FIP200 interaction and the role of COP1 in terms of UV response and induction of autophagy. A yeast two hybrid analysis using deletion mutants of COP1 indicated that the RING domain at the N terminus of COP1, but not the WD40

antibody did not prevent the augmenta tion of P gingivalis invas

antibody did not prevent the augmenta tion of P. gingivalis invasion by TNF. TNF augments invasion of P. gingivalis through NF ��B and MAPK pathways To determine whether mRNA synthesis and protein syn thesis were required for P. gingivalis invasion, Ca9 22 cells were preincubated with 1 ug ml of the RNA poly merase II inhibitor actinomycin D or the protein syn thesis inhibitor cyclohe imide for 1 h and were then incubated with TNF prior to addition of P. gingivalis. Actinomycin D and cyclohe imide e hibited significant invasion of P. gingivalis augmented by TNF. PDTC also e hibited significant inhibitory activity towards the invasion of P. gingivalis enhanced by TNF. These results suggest that TNF augmented invasion of P. gingivalis is mediated by p38 and JNK pathways and activation of NF ��B.

ICAM 1 mediates invasion of P. gingivalis E pression Drug_discovery of ICAM 1 is required for invasion of some bacteria in KB cells. To determine whether ICAM 1 affects P. ginigvalis invasion into cells, we first e amined co localization of P. gingivalis with ICAM 1 in cells. Ca9 22 cells were incubated with P. gingivalis, and localization of ICAM 1 and P. ginigvalis in the cells was observed by a confocal laser scanning microscope. ICAM 1 strongly e pressed around the cell surface was partially co localized with P. gingivalis in the cells. We also e amined the e pression of ICAM 1 in TNF treated Ca9 22 cells. Ca9 22 cells were treated with or without TNF for 3 h. The cells were lysed and e pression of ICAM 1 was analyzed by Western blotting. ICAM 1 was e pressed in Ca9 22 cells with out TNF stimulation.

However, TNF increased the e pression of ICAM 1 in the cells. We ne t e amined whether ICAM 1 is associated with in vasion of P. gingivalis into the cells. Ca9 22 cells were treated with TNF for 3 h, incubated with an anti ICAM 1 antibody or a control IgG antibody for an additional 2 h, and then incubated with P. gingivalis. Anti ICAM 1 antibody suppressed invasion of P. gin givalis in the cells with or without TNF pretreat ment. In contrast, P. gingivalis invasion was not prevented by control IgG. These results sug gest that ICAM 1 is partially associated with invasion of P. gingivalis into Ca9 22 cells. Rab5 mediates endocytosis of P. gingivalis Several studies have shown that Rab5 regulates events in the fusion of bacteria containing vacuoles and early endosomes.

Therefore, we investigated whether Rab5 mediates P. gingivalis invasion into cells. We first were incubated with P. gingivalis for 1 h. Internalization of P. gingivalis into the cells was reduced by silencing the Rab5 gene. To determine whether the Rab5 affects P. ginigvalis invasion into cells, Ca9 22 cells e pressing GFP Rab5 were treated with P. gingivalis, and localization of Rab5 and P. ginigvalis in the cells was observed by a confocal laser scanning microscope. Transfected GFP Rab5 was partially co localized with P. gingivalis in the cells. These results sug gest that Rab5 is partially associated with in

Sometimes, classical displacement measurements are much more diff

Sometimes, classical displacement measurements are much more difficult and have limitations: inertial sensors are prone to drift, and wheel odometry is unreliable in rough terrain (wheels tend to slip and sink) and as a consequence visual odometric approaches are widely studied [11�C13]. For example, in an underwater or naval environment classical ego-motion techniques are not suitable. In [14], Elkins et al. presented localization system for cooperative boats. In [15], Jenkin et al. proposed an ego-motion technique based on visual SLAM fused with IMU. In order to find displacement with exteroceptive sensors such as range finders, the scan matching method is commonly used [16�C18] but each scan is corrected with proprioceptive sensors especially when the sensor is slow.

In all scan matching work, distortion is taken into account but considered as a disturbance and thus corrected.The only work dealing with distortion as a source of information used a rolling shutter specific camera. In [19], Ait-Aider et al. computed instantaneous 3D pose and velocity of fast moving objects using a single camera image but, in their context, prior knowledge about the observed object is required. In mobile robotics, we have no a priori knowledge about the surrounding environment of the robot. To the best of our knowledge, there is absolutely no work in the field of mobile robotics literature considering distortion as a source of information in an odometric purpose.The originality of this paper is to study and use data distortion and Doppler effect as sources of information in order to estimate the vehicle’s displacement.

The linear and angular velocities of the mobile robot are estimated by analyzing the distortion of the measurements provided by the mobile ground-based panoramic Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar, called IMPALA. Then, the trajectory of the vehicle and the radar map of outdoor environments are built. Localization and mapping results are presented for a ground vehicle application when driving at high speed.Section Entinostat 2 presents the microwave radar scanner developed by a Irstea research team (in the field of agricultural and environmental engineering research) [20]. Section 3 focuses on the analysis of the Doppler effect for velocimetry purpose. Section 4 gives the formulation of the principle used in order to extract information from the distortion.

Finally, Section 5 shows experimental results of this work. Section 6 concludes.2.?The IMPALA RadarThe IMPALA radar was developed by the IRSTEA in Clermont-Ferrand, France, for applications in the environmental monitoring domain and robotics. It is a Linear Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (LFMCW) radar [21]. The principle of a LFMCW radar consists in transmitting a continuous frequency modulated signal, and measuring the frequency difference (called beat frequency Fb) between the transmitted and the received signals.

In this paper, we focus mainly on the wireless sensor-based corro

In this paper, we focus mainly on the wireless sensor-based corrosion-monitoring platform for RC (reinforced concrete) structures, which can achieve sustainable and autonomous operation, thereby satisfying the requirements of field experts for long-term and human-free monitoring. To this end, we design and implement a wireless sensor system, called EPS (Events as Power Source), which monitors the corrosion events in RC structures, while being driven only by the micro-energy released from the corrosion process; essentially, the corrosion energy not only is the event (field experts are interested in the dynamics of corrosion energy) but also serves as a power supply for EPS. In summary, the major contributions of this study are as follows:First, we build a sensing device to effectively detect corrosion events.

It is small in size and able to output voltage signals, both of which make it easy to be physically connected with COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf) wireless sensor motes, such as the Telosb or Mica family motes.Second, we attempt to employ a low-cost COTS boost charger to harvest the micro-energy released in corrosive environments into a supercapacitor that can perpetually power the sensor mote as long as the corrosion continues, consequently removing the need for battery replacements.Third, to efficiently utilize the precious accumulated energy, we propose an adaptive scheme that runs on the MCU of EPS to schedule both the energy usage and the transmitted power of the sensor mote.

Finally, we build a prototype of EPS and conduct a series of preliminary experiments, through which our designs are evaluated in terms of the feasibility and the efficiency of EPS.The rest of this paper is organized as follows. We briefly introduce some significant related work in Section 2. Section 3 introduces the background of corrosion monitoring and some basics of the corrosion Brefeldin_A process that are important to our designs. Section 4 presents the detailed design of EPS in terms of the hardware platform and the communication schemes, and Section 5 conducts a preliminary test-bed experiment to evaluate EPS’s feasibility. Section 6 concludes this study and introduces our future work.2.?The State of the ArtEnergy-harvesting wireless sensor networks have attracted more attention recently. More effort is put into the design of an energy-harvesting circuit, which is often integrated to a COTS sensor mote, such as the Crossbow Mica-family mote and the Berkeley/Crossbow Telosb mote, and few effort into communication algorithms based on ideal energy-harvesting models, such as transmitted power control and routing.The early work is attributed to Kansal et al.

The distributed pool of sensors senses the environment and transf

The distributed pool of sensors senses the environment and transfers collected values immediately to the Application Server (AS) through the WoO gateway. After analyzing those real world environment data according to a predefined policy, AS detects an emergency fire situation. After the detection of a fire incident, the fire management team takes actions based on previously occurred similar types of fire incidents. These previous conditions data are retrieved from the log repository [9]. The emergency situation log is collected from ViOs and is stored in the log repository. We characterize a shopping mall fire incident to portray an emergency fire management system, but it is not limited to any specific type of organization or territory.

If simplicity and intuitiveness can be obtained for the end users��not only in using various applications while interacting with their physical surroundings, but also in creating new experiences via the same tangible real-world interactivity��then indeed, a potentially large market exists for actors in the service-enabling space, ranging from domain-specific application service providers down to Internet-of-things infrastructure interconnectivity providers and network operators. We expect that the dynamics of the long tail marketplace for applications (and application components) will result in the most relevant components become part of the enabling substrate. As such, today’s applications will evolve into tomorrow’s service infrastructure.2.?Related WorkSeveral attempts have been explored for incorporating applications and services into the real world.

Service Oriented Device & Delivery Architecture (SODA) [10,11] is an adaptation of a service-oriented architecture (SOA). The SODA approach for designing and building distributed software is to adapt a wide range of physical devices into disseminated IT inventiveness systems.SOA is a well-known IoT GSK-3 middleware solution approach. However, a widely recognized layered architecture is ignored in SOA and faces problems of abstracting objects’ functionalities and communications capabilities which are required for service composition. ITEA2 OSAMI commons [12,13] project have shown the basic design of SOA-oriented platforms. This knowledge can be applicable in the context of the global roadmap of the WoO.DiYSE [14,15] is another approach that is easy to use for normal users, but rarely suitable for professionals. Moreover, its object representation and business process model cannot handle complexity due to the lack of dynamicity in connecting objects as well as creating new services. Hence, WoO is intended to enhance that expertise to the professional level as well as to handle complex workflows for creating new services.

Ui selects IDi and pwi, computes H_PWi=h(pwi) and sends the regis

Ui selects IDi and pwi, computes H_PWi=h(pwi) and sends the registration request IDi,h(pwi) to GW. Then, GW personalizes a smart card for Ui and sends it to Ui. Figure 1 shows the registration phase of Vaidya et al.’s scheme.Figure 1.Registration phase of Vaidya et al.’s scheme [12].R-1Ui selects IDi and.PWiR-2Ui computes H_PWi=h(pwi)Ui sends a registration request IDi, H_PWi to GW in secure channels (it was not mentioned whether the registration request from Ui to GW is sent by secure channels [12], but we guess that it is sent this way).R-3GW computes the following when it receives the registration request from Ui.Ai=h(IDiH_PWixs)h(K)Bi=h(H_PWixs)Ci=xsh(IDsH_PWi)GW personalizes the smart card with IDs, IDi, h(?), Ai, Bi and Ci.GW sends the smart card to Ui in secure channels.

Meanwhile, SIDj and a secret value xs generated by GW are stored in Sj before it is deployed into a target field.2.2. Login PhaseThe login phase begins when Ui inserts Ui’s smart card into a terminal and inputs IDi* and pwi*. In this phase, Ui sends the authentication request to GW. Figure 2 illustrates the login phase of Vaidya et al.’s scheme.Figure 2.Login phase of Vaidya et al.’s scheme [12].L-1Ui inserts Ui’s smart card into a terminal and inputs IDi* and pwi*L-2The smart card computes the following.H_PWi*=h(pwi*)xs=Ci��h(IDs��H_PWi*)Bi*=h(H_PWi*��xs)The smart card compares Bi* with Bi. If, Bi*=Bi, then the next step proceeds; otherwise, this phase is aborted.L-3The smart card generates a random nonce RNi and computes the following. Ti is the current timestamp of Ui system.

DIDi=h(IDi��H_PWi*��xs)h(xs��RNi��Ti)MUi?G=h(AixsRNiTi)vi=RNixsThe smart card sends the authentication request DIDi, MUi?G, vi, Ti to GW.2.3. Authentication-Key Agreement PhaseWhen GW receives the authentication request from Ui, the authentication-key agreement Cilengitide phase begins. In this phase, Ui, GW, Sj and send and receive authentication requests from one another. Figure 3 depicts the authentication-key agreement phase of Vaidya et al.’s scheme. The following describes this process in detail.Figure 3.Authentication-key agreement phase of Vaidya et al.’s scheme [12].A-1GW checks if (TG?Ti) �� ��T, where TG is the current timestamp of GW system, and ��T is the maximum permitted transmission delay time. If (TG?Ti) �� ��T, then the next step proceeds; otherwise, this phase is aborted.

A-2GW computes the following.RNi=vixsX*=DIDih(xsRNiTi)MUi?G*=h((X*h(K))xsRNiTi)GW compares MUi?G* with MUi?G*. If MUi?G
Over time temperature monitoring has been an indispensable tool for sensing changes in many different processes and systems, in both research and industrial applications. Many diverse sectors, such as transport, control, automobile, industrial machinery, energy, medical, food, etc., are profiting from the incorporation of temperature sensor equipments.

The breath test distinguished between women with breast cancer an

The breath test distinguished between women with breast cancer and healthy volunteers with a sensitivity of 94.1% (48/51) and a specificity of 73.8% (31/42) using these eight VOCs. Using five other breast cancer biomarker VOCs, the breath test distinguished between women with breast cancer and healthy volunteers with a sensitivity of 93.8% and a specificity of 84.6%. Those five VOCs are 2-propanol, 2,3-dihydro-1-phenyl-4(1H) quinazolinone, 1-phenylethanone, heptanal, and isopropyl myristate [18]. According to the trapping capability of gas, we choose the following sorbents: Carbopack?B and Tenax? GR, adopt OD1/4 inch, 7-inch length standard sorbent tube, and filling with 120-150 mm (about 600~1,000 mg) mixed sorbents, which can complete the sampling of object gas.

The multi-bed sorbent tube is shown in Figure 2.

The tube consists of 60 mm Tenax? GR plus 60 mm of Carbopack?B separated by 3 mm of glass wool. These adsorbents are arranged in order of increasing sorbent strength from the sampling end of the tube. During the filling process, the sorbents should not be too tight to stress the sorbents or too loose to leave holes at the sorbent bed.Figure 2.Multi-be
Two kinds of well-known distinct methods for the observation of white light interferometric fringe patterns in optical fiber sensor systems are spectral domain processing and phase domain processing [4]. Phase domain processing method can be further divided into two classes, depending on the method of pattern formation, namely temporal fringe formation and spatial fringe formation.

In the Anacetrapib spectral domain processing, a spectrum analyzer is used to directly process the output of sensing interferometer with a spectral resolution capability of ���� [nm Cilengitide ]. Any temperature change affecting the sensing interferometer induces a change in modulation frequency of the measurement signal and the position of maxima (fringe peaks) in the spectral pattern as well, which can be measured and mapped to the temperature. Reference [5] proposed a WLI temperature sensor system where a low finesse reflective mode Fabry-Perot interferometer is used as a sensing interferometer and an optical spectrum analyzer is used as a processing unit. This WLI system attained (absolute) temperature measurement over the range from 298K to 673K with resolution equal to 1 K, but, the relation between temperature and modulation frequency (fringe spacing of the spectrum of output of sensing interferometer) was not quite linear and it is questionable to apply the result for absolute temperature measurement.

Interest operators extract salient image features, which are dist

Interest operators extract salient image features, which are distinctive in their neighbourhood and are reproduced in corresponding images in a similar way [4]; at the same time, interest operators supply one or more characteristics, which can be used in the image matching. Region detector operators, instead, search for a set of pixels which are invariant to a class of transformations (radiometric and geometric distortions). The term ��region�� differs from classical segmentation since the region boundaries do not have to correspond to changes in image appearance such as colour or texture [5].These operators have been developed for when the normal stereo image acquisition condition is not required. Region operators detect features that do not vary with different geometrical transformations (scale, affine transformation, etc.

). A descriptor, which describes the extracted feature using a 2D vector that contains gradient pixel intensity information, is associated to each region. This information may be used to classify the extracted regions or to perform the matching process.Although region detector/descriptors are computationally slower than those of interest points, the experimental results show that these detectors have a wider application range. Interest in these detectors in the photogrammetric field is quickly increasing due to the introduction of new image acquisition techniques, which do not comply with the normal stereoscopic case. Images acquired through Mobile Mapping Technology [6] are usually extracted from video-sequences with low-resolution quality.

Consequently, the orientation process is hampered by illumination problems, the limited dynamic range of the video-cameras, sensor noise, narrow baselines and projective distortions. Oblique photogrammetric images, Dacomitinib which are commonly used for the generation of 3D city modelling [7], offer images that are affected by high projective distortions which must be carefully processed. Finally, image sequences acquired using low-cost UAV platforms [8] do not assure the normal taking geometry.Interest point extractors and matchers, which are traditionally used in photogrammetry (Forstner operator [9], Harris operator [10], Cross-Correlation etc.), are usually inefficient for these applications as they are unable to give reliable results under difficult geometrical and radiometrical conditions (convergent taking geometry, strong affine transformations, lack of texture etc.)The SIFT operator is one of the most frequently used in the region detector field. It was first conceived by Lowe [11] and it is currently employed in different application fields.