They also identify a new mechanism by which post-traumatic hemorr

They also identify a new mechanism by which post-traumatic hemorrhage contributes to the neurological deficits observed following SCI. (c) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is essential for infection by a variety of viruses. The p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSKs) are direct substrates of ERK and functional mediators of ERK MAPK signaling, but their roles in viral infection have never been examined. We demonstrate that ORF45 of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) interacts with RSK1 and RSK2 and strongly stimulates their kinase activities. The activation of RSK by ORF45 is correlated with ERK activation but does not require MEK. We further demonstrate that RSK1/RSK2 is activated during KSHV primary infection and reactivation from latency; a SYN-117 subset Selleckchem Acalabrutinib of RSK1/RSK2 is present in the viral replication compartment in the nucleus. Depletion

of RSK1/RSK2 by small interfering RNA or the specific inhibitor BI-D1870 suppresses KSHV lytic gene expression and progeny virion production, suggesting an essential role of RSK1/RSK2 in KSHV lytic replication.”
“Disturbances in mood such as anxiety and depression are often associated with altered hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity, but also with changes in cytokine production, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), an essential immune factor produced by macrophages and lymphocytes during Histone demethylase inflammatory processes. The reciprocal relationship between the HPA axis and the immune system is now well established. In order to understand better the endocrine reactivity of anxious individuals faced with an immune challenge, a model of innate anxiety-related behavior, HAB and LAB rats (HABs, high and LABs, low anxiety-related behavior) was used in this study. We sought to determine whether injection of

lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a differential HPA axis reactivity and plasma IL-6 release in HABs and LABs.

After LPS injection, the plasma adrenal corticotrophic hormone increase did not differ between HABs and LABs, whereas a larger increase in plasma corticosterone levels occurred in HABs than in LABs at 2 h after injection. Moreover, basal IL-6 levels were lower in HABs than in LABs, leading to a higher IL-6 2 h/basal ratio in HABs. In conclusion, we propose for the first time a link between the endocrine and immune systems of HABs and LABs and suggest that IL-6 could be a neuroendocrine correlate of trait anxiety in HABs. (c) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In this study we report the complete sequence and genome organization of the serotype I feline coronavirus (FCoV) strain Black. Furthermore, a reverse genetic system was established for this FCoV strain by cloning a full-length cDNA copy into vaccinia virus.

Interestingly, these two substitutions shifted the chain-length s

Interestingly, these two substitutions shifted the chain-length specificity of lipase toward medium- and long-chain triglycerides. Combination of those two mutations with a promising one at the entrance of the catalytic cavity (K80E) negatively

affected the lipase activity at neutral pH but not that at acidic pH. Our results provide a basis for the design of improved lipase at acidic pH and identify for the first time key residues associated with chain-length specificity.”
“Human embryonic kidney cells 293 (HEK293) are widely used as cellular heterologous expression systems to study transfected ion channels. This work characterizes the endogenous expression of TRPM4 channels in HEK293 cells. TRPM4 is an intracellular Ca2+-activated non-selective cationic channel expressed Evofosfamide order in many cell types. Western blot analyses have revealed the endogenous expression of TRPM4. Single channel 22 pS conductance with a linear current-voltage relationship was observed using the inside-out patch clamp configuration in the presence of intracellular Ca2+. The channels were permeable to the monovalent cations Na+ and K+, but not to Ca2+. The open probability was voltage-dependent, being higher at positive potentials. Using the whole-cell patch clamp “”ruptured patch”" configuration, the amplitude of the intracellular Ca2+-activated macroscopic current was dependent on time after patch rupture.

Initial transient activation followed by a steady-increase check details reaching a plateau phase was

observed. Biophysical analyses of the macroscopic current showed common properties with those from HEK293 cells stably transfected with human TRPM4b, with the exception of current time course and Ca2+ sensitivity. The endogenous macroscopic current reached the plateau faster and required 61.9 +/- 3.5 mu M Ca2+ to be half-maximally activated versus 84.2 +/- 1.5 mu M for the transfected current. The pharmacological properties, however, were similar in both conditions. One hundred mu M of flufenamic acid and 9-phenanthrol strongly inhibited the endogenous current. Altogether, the data demonstrate the expression of endogenous TRMP4 channels in HEK293 cells. This observation should be taken into account when Chloroambucil using this cell line to study TRPM4 or other types of Ca2+-activated channels. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background. To validate and extend the findings of a raised cut score of O’Bryant and colleagues (O’Bryant SE, Humphreys JD, Smith GE, et al. Detecting dementia with the mini-mental state examination in highly educated individuals. Arch Neurol. 2008;65(7):963-967.) for the Mini-Mental State Examination in detecting cognitive dysfunction in a bilingual sample of highly educated ethnically diverse individuals.

Methods. Archival data were reviewed from participants enrolled in the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center minimum data set.

Increased DNA dynamics is dependent on several homologous recombi

Increased DNA dynamics is dependent on several homologous recombination (HR) proteins and we are just beginning to understand how chromosome dynamics is regulated after DNA damage.”
“Accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis of ecstasy and amphetamine exhibiting neurotoxic properties in human recreational learn more users. The extent and exact location of neuronal degeneration might also be associated with a specific profile of cognitive deterioration described in polydrug users. Voxel-based morphometry and cortical thickness analyses constantly gain attention for answering the question of associated neurological sequelae. We aimed to evaluate the integrity of cortical and subcortical structures in three groups

that differ in the consumption of amphetamine-type stimulants. Cortical thickness, cortical grey matter volume and the shape of supposedly vulnerable subcortical structures were compared between 20 experienced users, 42 users with little exposure to these substances and 16 drug-naive controls. Cortical thinning in experienced users compared to drug-naive controls and

low-exposure users was observed in medio-frontal regions. Effects of ecstasy and amphetamine on cortical volume were similar to those of cortical thickness, with volume reductions primarily in frontal, but also in occipital and parietal regions of low Bortezomib cell line exposure and experienced users. These effects were differently lateralized for the different comparisons. The investigation of subcortical structures revealed non-significant bilateral shape differences in the hippocampi. Our data support the hypothesis that massive recreational amphetamine-type stimulant polydrug use is associated with a thinning of cortical

grey matter. Disrupted neuronal integrity in frontal Chlormezanone regions does fit well into models of addiction and the cognitive deterioration in amphetamine-type stimulant polydrug users. The exact neurotoxic mechanisms of polydrug ecstasy and amphetamine use, however, remain speculative. (C) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: After undergoing vasectomy up to 6% of men will elect to undergo vasectomy reversal. For these men paternity can be achieved with vasectomy reversal or surgical sperm retrieval coupled with assisted reproduction. Nevertheless, it remains difficult for surgeons to accurately counsel men on the chance of patency after vasectomy reversal.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted of 548 patients who underwent microsurgical vasectomy reversal. Surgery was considered successful if sperm concentration was 100,000 or more sperm per ml, total count was 100,000 or more sperm per ejaculate, motile sperm were present and there was no evidence of subsequent failure. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to calculate the probability of having a successful vasectomy reversal and nomograms for patency were generated from this model.

We searched the available literature since the advent of corticos

We searched the available literature since the advent of corticosteroid therapy (1950) utilizing the PubMed database ( Primary articles were identified, and they and their pertinent references were reviewed. Due to potential confusion between NP manifestations of CS therapy and central nervous system (CNS) involvement of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a condition often treated with CS, a brief review of NP manifestations of SLE was also performed. The presentation of

CS-induced neuropsychiatric disorders (CIPD) can be quite varied with depression, hypomania, and overt psychosis being the most common manifestations. FHPI CIPD can also include bipolar affective changes, delirium, panic attacks, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, insomnia, restlessness, fatigue, catatonia, reversible dementia-like cognitive changes, impaired memory, and concentration. No factors have been identified that allow for the accurate prediction of development of CIPD. A dose-dependent relationship (increased risk when the daily prednisone-equivalent dose is a parts per thousand yen40 mg) has been observed in most cases of CIPD, although there have been case reports with lower doses, alternate-day selleck screening library therapy, and even inhaled CS. Women are more commonly affected with most symptoms occurring in the first 6 weeks of starting treatment. SLE has been the only specific illness that has been linked to a greater risk

of CIPD and the NP manifestations of SLE may mimic those of CIPD, with most occurring in the first year of diagnosis. Antiribosomal P, antineuronal, or antiphospholipid antibodies are frequently seen in patients with SLE developing CIPD. Imaging and EEG abnormalities, the coexistence of non-CNS manifestations of SLE, and the presence of serious disturbances in memory and concentration are more suggestive of NP-SLE than CIPD. Although NP symptoms associated with the use of CS generally resolve with discontinuation of the medication, Tryptophan synthase prophylaxis with lithium, and treatment with antidepressants,

anticonvulsants and electroconvulsive therapy for severe mania and depression have been reported with successful outcomes. A greater understanding of the underlying mechanism of CIPD, risk factors involved, treatment options, and the distinguishing features from NP-SLE will ultimately lead to more directed therapy for such patients.”
“Enthesopathy is pathology of bony insertions of tendons, ligaments or joint capsules. It is a frequent finding in rheumatic diseases, like ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and Beh double dagger et’s disease. Musculoskeletal complaints are common in patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), and these could be a clinical manifestation of enthesopathy. Hence, we investigated the possible association between FMF and enthesopathy. Fifty-six patients with FMF and 11 patients with FMF-associated spondyloarthropathy (FMFS) were enrolled.

Methods A 62-year-old woman with a history of alcohol abuse, clos

Methods A 62-year-old woman with a history of alcohol abuse, closed head injury and posttraumatic epilepsy, presented with acute onset aphasia and right hemiparesis. A non-contrast head CT scan demonstrated no acute hemorrhage. Left hemispheric ischemia was suspected, and the patient was considered for acute thrombolytic therapy. MRI revealed a subtle increase

in signal intensity involving the left medial temporal, hippocampal and parahippocampal regions on both T2-weighted FLAIR and diffusion-weighted sequences. CT angiography and CT perfusion study were performed. The CT perfusion study and CT angiography demonstrated a dramatic reduction in cerebral blood flow and blood volume involving the entire left hemisphere, Ispinesib ic50 but with relative symmetry of mean transit time, ruling out a large vessel occlusion.

Results Clinical resolution of the aphasia and hemiparesis occurred within a few hours, and correlated with normalization of perfusion to the left hemisphere (detected by MR perfusion).

Conclusion This unique case is the first in which clinical evidence of Todd’s paralysis has been correlated

with reversible postictal hemispheric changes on CT and MR perfusion studies. This is important because CT perfusion study is being used more and more in the diagnosis of acute stroke, and one needs to be careful to not misinterpret the data.”
“In flaviviruses it has been proposed that there is a coupling between genome replication and virion assembly and that nonstructural proteins SGC-CBP30 purchase are involved in this process. It was previously ADAMTS5 reported that mutations in yellow fever virus (YFV) nonstructural protein NS2A blocked production of infectious virus and that this block could be released by

a suppressor mutation in NS3. Here, based on studies using a YFV replicon-based trans-packaging system as well as full-length YFV cDNA, we report that mutation of a conserved tryptophan at position 349 in the helicase domain of NS3 blocks production of infectious virus particles, revealing an as-yet-unknown role for NS3 in virus assembly. Mutation of tryptophan 349 to alanine (W349A) had no effect on viral replication, as demonstrated by wild-type levels of viral RNA amplification and protein expression in W349A-transfected cells. Although release of infectious virus was not detected, release of capsidless subviral particles was not blocked. The assembly defect in W349A could be trans-complemented inefficiently using BHK-REP cells (a cell line containing persistently replicating YFV replicon RNA). trans-complementation was also demonstrated by supplying wild-type NS2B-3 or NS3 protein alone as well as by supplying inactive NS2B-3 protein, indicating that this function of NS3 in virus assembly was independent of its known enzymatic functions.”
“Introduction Parallel imaging techniques such as GRAPPA have been introduced to optimize image quality and acquisition time.

These observations correlate repression of transcription of IFN-i

These observations correlate repression of transcription of IFN-inducible genes by the E1B 55-kDa protein with protection against inhibition of viral genome replication and indicate that the E1B 55-kDa protein is not sufficient to establish such transcriptional repression.”
“Event-related potentials (ERPs) such as Nd, N2b, and P300 in an attentional

task and an auditory oddball task were compared among 54 adult AD/HD patients, 43 schizophrenic patients (SZ), Selleck Osimertinib and 40 healthy age-matched volunteers (HC). It is known that Nd, N2b, and P300 reflect selective attention, voluntary attention, and cognitive context updating respectively. The peak amplitude of P300 was significantly lower in the adult AD/HD and SZ groups than in the HC group. The peak latencies of late Nd. N2b, and P300 were significantly longer in the SZ group than in the HC and adult AD/HD groups. Thus, attenuated amplitude and prolonged latency

of various ERP components in the SZ group suggest the possibility of impairment of basic mechanisms underlying cognitive processing. Unlike the SZ group, the adult AD/HD group exhibited reduced amplitude of P300 but not prolonged latency. These findings suggest the existence of a different type of cognitive dysfunction in the adult AD/HD group, which might be closely related to attentional function. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Myxoma virus (MYXV) and vaccinia virus Mdivi1 (VACV), two distinct members of the family Poxviridae, are both currently being developed as oncolytic virotherapeutic agents. Recent studies have demonstrated that ex vivo treatment with MYXV can Thalidomide selectively recognize and kill contaminating cancerous cells from autologous bone marrow transplants without perturbing the engraftment of normal CD34(+) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. However, the mechanism(s) by which MYXV specifically recognizes and eliminates the cancer cells in the autografts is not understood. While little is known about the cellular attachment

factor(s) exploited by MYXV for entry into any target cells, VACV has been shown to utilize cell surface glycosaminoglycans such as heparan sulfate (HS), the extracellular matrix protein laminin, and/or integrin beta 1. We have constructed MYXV and VACV virions tagged with the Venus fluorescent protein and compared their characteristics of binding to various human cancer cell lines as well as to primary human leukocytes. We report that the binding of MYXV or VACV to some adherent cell lines could be partially inhibited by heparin, but laminin blocked only VACV binding. In contrast to cultured fibroblasts, the binding of MYXV and VACV to a wide spectrum of primary human leukocytes could not be competed by either HS or laminin.

Here, we investigate how nitric oxide (NO) affects osteoclastogen

Here, we investigate how nitric oxide (NO) affects osteoclastogenesis.

Time lapse photomicrography, using the fluorescent NO indicator dye, 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate, revealed an intense NO signal in pre-osteoclasts preceding cell fusion. Osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells increased when exposed to the NO synthase inhibitor, L-NMMA (0.25 mu M), for the initial 48 h. In contrast, pre-osteoclast fusion decreased when RAW264.7 cells were exposed to L-NMMA from 48 to 96 h. Both NO synthase inhibitors, L-NMMA and L-NAME, decreased 17-AAG molecular weight osteoclast formation during this time period. The inhibitory effect of L-NMMA on osteoclast formation was abolished with increasing concentrations (25-200 ng/ml) of sRANKL suggesting signaling cross talk. NO donors increased osteoclast formation in a dose-dependent manner, with greatest stimulation at 15 mu M NOC-12 (2.3 fold) and 5 mu M NOC-18 (2.4 fold). Measuring nitrite (NO end product) daily from culture media of RAW264.7 cells undergoing osteoclastogenesis revealed that an increase in NO production coincided

with the fusion of pre-osteoclasts (day 4). Inhibiting fusion by plating cells on polystyrene dishes pre-coated with poly-(L-lysine) decreased both osteoclast formation and NO production. To address if NO mediates fusion through the actin cytoskeleton, actin free barbed ends were measured. 0.25 mu M L-NMMA decreased, while 15 mu M NOC-12 and 5 PM NOC-18 increased actin free barbed ends. We hypothesize that while NO initially negatively regulates pre-osteoclast

differentiation; it later facilitates the ACP-196 molecular weight fusion selleck inhibitor of mononuclear pre-osteoclasts, possibly by up regulating actin remodeling. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“In healthy humans, a high-saturated-fat/high-sucrose meal induces vascular endothelial dysfunction, a hallmark of atherogenesis. This transient dysfunction indicates a loss in nitric oxide (NO) production and/or bioactivity in the vasculature but it remains unknown if this is the local manifestation of a general impairment in NO pathway in the postprandial state. Here, we studied whole-body NO production and systemic NO bioactivity in postprandial endothelial dysfunction, as induced by a high-saturated-fat, high-sucrose meal.

We first developed a physiological test of endothelial function on conscious rats, based on the transient fall in blood pressure after iv acetylcholine, and showed that this response was NO-dependent. As assessed with this method in healthy rats, endothelial function decreased during the postprandial state, being 60 +/- 7% lower than baseline at 6 h after the meal challenge, associated with important elevations in plasma triglycerides and hydroperoxides. Aortic superoxide anion production, as assessed by oxidative fluorescent detection, was higher 6 h after the meal challenge than after the nutrients vehicle (water).

These findings should be confirmed or refuted through larger, ran

These findings should be confirmed or refuted through larger, randomized clinical trials with longer-term follow-up. ( numbers, NCT00484926 and NCT00590174.)


Engl J Med 2010;362:1374-82.”
“Background: The comparative efficacy and safety of infliximab and azathioprine therapy alone or in combination for Crohn’s disease are unknown.

Methods: In this randomized, double-blind trial, we evaluated the efficacy of infliximab monotherapy, azathioprine monotherapy, and the two drugs combined in 508 adults with moderate-to-severe Crohn’s disease who had not undergone previous immunosuppressive or biologic therapy. Patients were randomly assigned to receive

an intravenous 17DMAG cell line infusion of 5 mg of infliximab per kilogram of body weight at weeks 0, 2, and 6 and then every ACY-241 ic50 8 weeks plus daily oral placebo capsules; 2.5 mg of oral azathioprine per kilogram daily plus a placebo infusion on the standard schedule; or combination therapy with the two drugs. Patients received study medication through week 30 and could continue in a blinded study extension through week 50.

Results: Of the 169 patients receiving combination therapy, 96 (56.8%) were in corticosteroid-free clinical remission at week 26 (the primary end point), as compared with 75 of 169 patients (44.4%) receiving infliximab alone (P=0.02) and 51 of 170 patients (30.0%) receiving azathioprine alone (P<0.001 for the comparison

with combination therapy and P=0.006 for the comparison with infliximab). Similar numerical trends were found at week 50. At week 26, mucosal healing had occurred Demeclocycline in 47 of 107 patients (43.9%) receiving combination therapy, as compared with 28 of 93 patients (30.1%) receiving infliximab (P=0.06) and 18 of 109 patients (16.5%) receiving azathioprine (P<0.001 for the comparison with combination therapy and P=0.02 for the comparison with infliximab). Serious infections developed in 3.9% of patients in the combination-therapy group, 4.9% of those in the infliximab group, and 5.6% of those in the azathioprine group.

Conclusions: Patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn’s disease who were treated with infliximab plus azathioprine or infliximab monotherapy were more likely to have a corticosteroid-free clinical remission than those receiving azathioprine monotherapy.”
“Background: Pompe’s disease is a metabolic myopathy caused by a deficiency of acid alpha glucosidase (GAA), an enzyme that degrades lysosomal glycogen. Late-onset Pompe’s disease is characterized by progressive muscle weakness and loss of respiratory function, leading to early death. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of alglucosidase alfa, a recombinant human GAA, for the treatment of late-onset Pompe’s disease.

We discuss the issues in the maturation of potential biomarkers f

We discuss the issues in the maturation of potential biomarkers from discovery to Food and Drug Administration approval and review several platforms for protein biomarker discovery, including protein microarray and mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

We describe the application of microfluidic technologies to the evolution of a robust clinical test. Finally, we highlight several biomarkers currently in use for cancer, ischemia, and injury in the central nervous system. Future efforts using these technologies will click here result in the maturation of existing and the identification of de novo biomarkers that could guide clinical decision making and advance diagnostic and therapeutic options for the treatment of neurological disease and injury.”
“The psychological and physical demands of coping with medication side effects and comorbid illnesses can be overwhelming and may influence behaviors, such as medication adherence, substance use, sexual risk behavior, and exercise that, in turn, affect health outcomes. Cross-sectional and prospective studies among diverse populations of persons living with HIV suggest that these behavioral mechanisms may be associated with HIV disease progression. The motivation to change

behavior is often highest in the immediate aftermath of a stressor. However, over time the motivation to continue a particular behavior change is often challenged by habits, environmental influences, and psychosocial factors. Furthermore, a number of studies suggest that behavioral LY2603618 datasheet mechanisms may mediate the relationship between psychosocial variables (e.g., stress, depression, coping, and social support) and disease progression in HIV. Thus, developing clinical interventions that address these psychosocial factors and enhance protective health behaviors and reduce behaviors that convey risk to health are likely to lessen overall morbidity and mortality among patients living with HIV/AIDS.”
“BACKGROUND: No prospective study Grape seed extract of gamma knife thalamotomy for intractable tremor has previously been reported.

OBJECTIVE: To clarify the safety and optimally effective conditions for performing unilateral

gamma knife (GK) thalamotomy for tremors of Parkinson disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET), a systematic postirradiation 24-month follow-up study was conducted at 6 institutions. We present the results of this multicenter collaborative trial.

METHODS: In total, 72 patients (PD characterized by tremor, n = 59; ET, n = 13) were registered at 6 Japanese institutions. Following our selective thalamotomy procedure, the lateral part of the ventralis intermedius nucleus, 45% of the thalamic length from the anterior tip, was selected as the GK isocenter. A single 130-Gy shot was applied using a 4-mm collimator. Evaluation included neurological examination, magnetic resonance imaging and/or computerized tomography, the unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale (UPDRS), electromyography, medication change, and video observations.

1) Serum integrin-linked kinase concentration greater than 2 48

1). Serum integrin-linked kinase concentration greater than 2.48 ng/mL had diagnostic sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 95%, positive predictive value of 85.7%, negative predictive value of 92.7%, and overall accuracy of 91% for distinction between malignant pleural mesothelioma and other diseases. Serum integrin-linked kinase concentration in malignant pleural mesothelioma was independent of histologic subtype or asbestos exposure. There was no statistically significant impact

of serum integrin-linked kinase concentration on prognosis.

Conclusions: Integrin-linked kinase can be detected in serum of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma and may be a diagnostic marker for the disease. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2011; Sapanisertib order 142:

“In the past three decades, mounting evidence has revealed that specification of the basic cortical neuronal classes starts at the time of their final mitotic divisions in the embryonic proliferative zones. This early cell determination continues during the PD173074 manufacturer migration of the newborn neurons across the widening cerebral wall, and it is in the cortical plate that they attain their final positions and establish species-specific cytoarchitectonic areas. Here, the development and evolutionary expansion of the neocortex is viewed in the context of the radial unit and protomap hypotheses. A broad spectrum of findings gave insight into the pathogenesis of cortical malformations and the biological bases for the evolution of the modern human neocortex. We examine Branched chain aminotransferase the history and evidence behind the concept of early specification of neurons and provide the latest compendium of genes and signaling molecules involved in neuronal fate determination and specification.”
“Background. The ACE project involved 62 participants with a first episode of psychosis randomly assigned to either a cognitive

behaviour therapy (CBT) intervention known as Active Cognitive Therapy for Early Psychosis (ACE) or a control condition known as Befriending. The study hypotheses were that: (1) treating participants with ACE in the acute phase would lead to faster reductions in positive and negative symptoms and more rapid improvement in functioning than Befriending; (2) these improvements in symptoms and functioning would be sustained at a 1-year follow-up; and (3) ACE would lead to fewer hospitalizations than Befriending as assessed at the I-year follow-up.

Method. Two therapists treated the participants across both conditions. Participants could not receive any more than 20 sessions within 14 weeks. Participants were assessed by independent raters on four primary outcome measures of symptoms and functioning: at pretreatment, the middle of treatment, the end of treatment and at 1-year follow-up. An independent pair of raters assessed treatment integrity.

Results. Both groups improved significantly over time.