3 +/- 1 5 g) by intraperitoneal injection of doxorubicin (20 mg/k

3 +/- 1.5 g) by intraperitoneal injection of doxorubicin (20 mg/kg). Animals recieved a daily oral gavage of TH-4 at 10(9) cfu/ml or skim milk (vehicle) from days 0 to 8. At day 6, rats were injected with either saline or doxorubicin. At kill, small intestinal tissues were collected for determination of sucrase and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities and histological assessment. Results. Body weight was significantly decreased by doxorubicin

compared with normal controls (p < 0.05). Histological parameters, such as crypt depth and villus height, were also significantly decreased by doxorubicin. TH-4 partially prevented the loss of body weight induced by doxorubicin (2.3% compared with 4%), but provided no further therapeutic benefit. Conclusions. The minimal amelioration learn more of doxorubicin-induced mucositis by TH-4 further supports folate production as a likely mechanism of TH-4 action against methotrexate-induced mucositis. Further studies into TH-4 are required to confirm its applicability to other conventional chemotherapy regimens.”
“Objective. To assess the effect of propranolol treatment on the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) and the relationship between native HVPG and the effect of propranolol in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension in a prospective, observational, single-center study. Material and methods. The HVPG was registered prospectively in 124

consecutive cirrhosis patients with and without treatment with propranolol 80 mg daily. Results. 41% of the patients responded to the treatment with the intended reduction of HVPG to <12 mm Hg and/or by >20%. The SRT1720 molecular weight HVPG reduction was larger for higher native

HVPG values Carnitine dehydrogenase (p < 0.001). There was no significant relation between changes in heart rate and changes in HVPG (p = 0.8). Conclusions. The high fraction of hemodynamic non-responders supports the rationale of measuring the HVPG with and without propranolol treatment to assist the clinical assessment and avoid meaningless and potentially harmful treatment. The positive association between a high native HVPG and propranolol-induced HVPG reduction indicates that pharmacological treatment also benefits patients with advanced portal hypertension.”
“Introduction. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with surgically altered upper gastrointestinal anatomy (SAA) is generally challenging despite the use of enteroscopy. After failed biliary cannulation, rendezvous technique (RV) can be an option to assist the biliary access. However, proper needle puncture of biliary ducts, which is critical in the RV procedure, can be difficult because of insufficient biliary dilation. By contrast, the gallbladder can be punctured as a possible access route for RV. Aim. To evaluate the feasibility and safety of percutaneous transgallbladder (PTGB)-RV in patients with SAA. Patients and methods. Six patients who underwent PTGB-RV were included.

The area (percentage of field) corresponding to the BLA structure

The area (percentage of field) corresponding to the BLA structures was quantified GSK1120212 cost by computerized-assisted image analysis. The results indicated that RLA-I showed a significantly poorer acquisition of the one-way avoidance

task than did RHA-I rats, but only when safe time was the shortest (I s). In addition, the number of trials needed to reach the behavioural acquisition criterion was negatively correlated with BLA cellular density in RLA-I rats. These data suggest the possibility of relating behavioural and neuro-anatomical indexes, enabling exploration of the biological basis of fear/anxiety behaviours. (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”
“Members of the Camelidae family produce immunoglobulins devoid of light chains. We have characterized variable domains of these heavy chain antibodies, the VHH, from llamas immunized with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein gp120 in order to identify VHH that can inhibit HIV-1 infection. To see more increase the chances of isolating neutralizing VHH, we employed a functional selection approach, involving panning of phage libraries expressing the VHH repertoire on recombinant gp120, followed by a competitive elution with soluble CD4. By immunizing with gp120 derived from an HIV-1 subtype B’/C primary isolate, followed by panning on gp120 from HIV-1 isolates of subtypes A, B, and C, we could select for VHH with

cross-subtype neutralizing activity. Three VHH able to neutralize HIV-1 primary isolates of subtypes B and C were characterized. These bound to recombinant gp120 with affinities close to the suggested affinity ceiling for in vivo-maturated antibodies and competed with soluble CD4 for this binding, indicating that their mechanism of neutralization involves interacting with the functional envelope spike prior to binding to CD4. The most potent VHH in terms of low 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) and IC(90) values and cross-subtype reactivity was A12. These results indicate that camelid VHH can be potent HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Since

VHH are BX-795 cost stable and can be produced at a relatively low cost, they may be considered for applications such as HIV-1 microbicide development. Antienvelope VHH might also prove useful in defining neutralizing and nonneutralizing epitopes on HIV-1 envelope proteins, with implications for HIV-1 vaccine design.”
“Cocaine addiction is associated with an increase in actin cycling and alterations in dendritic spines in the nucleus accumbens. Both actin polymerization and spine morphology are regulated in part by beta-(beta) integrins. Mice were administered acute or daily injections of cocaine or saline for 7 days. After 3 weeks of withdrawal, the level of beta-integrins in the postsynaptic density enriched subfraction from nucleus accumbens tissue Was quantified by immunoblotting at 0, 30 or 120 min following an a cocaine challenge injection.

“In the past one hundred years physical anthropology has r

“In the past one hundred years physical anthropology has recourse to more and more efficient methods, which provide several new information regarding, human evolution and biology. Apart from the molecular approach, the introduction of new computed assisted techniques gave rise to a new concept of morphometry. Computed Ferrostatin-1 tomography and 3D-imaging, allowed providing anatomical description of the external and inner structures exceeding the problems encountered with the traditional morphometric methods. Furthermore, the support of geometric morphometrics, allowed creating geometric models to investigate morphological variation in terms of evolution, ontogeny and variability. The integration of these new tools

gave rise to the virtual anthropology and to a new image of the anthropologist in which anatomical, biological, mathematical statistical and data processing information are fused in a multidisciplinary approach.”
“The Tomato bushy stunt virus-encoded P19 forms dimers that bind duplex short interfering

RNAs (siRNAs) to suppress RNA silencing. P19 is also involved in multiple host-specific activities, including the elicitation of symptoms, and in local and/or systemic spread. To study the correlation between those various roles and the siRNA binding by P19, predicted siRNA-interacting sites were modified. Twenty-two mutants were generated and inoculated onto Nicotiana benthamiana Fedratinib supplier plants, to reveal that (i) they were all infectious, (ii) symptom check details differences did not

correlate strictly with mutation-associated variation in P19 accumulation, and (iii) substitutions affecting a central domain of P19 generally exhibited symptoms more severe than for mutations affecting peripheral regions. Three mutants selected to represent separate phenotypic categories all displayed a substantially reduced ability to sequester siRNA. Consequently, these three mutants were compromised for systemic virus spread in P19-dependent hosts but had differential plant species-dependent effects on the symptom severity. One mutant in particular caused relatively exacerbated symptoms, exemplified by extensive morphological leaf deformations in N. benthamiana; this was especially remarkable because P19 was undetectable. Another striking feature of this mutant was that only within a few days after infection, viral RNA was cleared by silencing. One more original property was that host RNAs and proteins (notably, the P19-interactive Hin19 protein) were also susceptible to degradation in these infected N. benthamiana plants but not in spinach. In conclusion, even though siRNA binding by P19 is a key functional property, compromised siRNA sequestration can result in novel and diverse host-dependent properties.”
“Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a low amount of acetylcholine (ACh) in hippocampus and cortex.

(C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “

(C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”


of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) belonging to a single lineage are often indistinguishable by means of current typing techniques. Whole-genome sequencing may provide improved resolution to define transmission pathways and characterize outbreaks.


We investigated a putative MRSA outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit. By using rapid high-throughput sequencing technology with a clinically relevant turnaround time, we retrospectively sequenced the DNA from seven isolates associated with the outbreak and another seven MRSA isolates associated with carriage of MRSA or bacteremia in the same hospital.


We constructed a phylogenetic tree by comparing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the core genome to a reference genome (an epidemic

MRSA clone, EMRSA-15 [sequence type 22]). This revealed a distinct cluster buy MK-0518 of outbreak isolates and clear separation between these and the nonoutbreak isolates. A previously missed transmission event was detected between two patients with bacteremia who were not part of the outbreak. We created an artificial “”resistome”" of antibiotic-resistance genes and demonstrated concordance between it and the results of phenotypic susceptibility testing; we also created a “”toxome”" consisting of toxin genes. One see more outbreak isolate had a hypermutator phenotype with a higher number of SNPs than the other outbreak isolates, highlighting the difficulty of imposing a simple threshold for the number of SNPs between isolates to decide whether they are part of a recent transmission chain.



sequencing can provide clinically relevant data within a time frame that can influence patient care. The need for automated data interpretation and the provision of clinically meaningful reports represent hurdles to clinical implementation. (Funded by the U.K. Clinical Research Collaboration Translational Infection YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 mouse Research Initiative and others.)”
“Neurocysticercosis (NC) invokes formidable neurological problems worldwide. Previous proteomic analyses revealed most of the low-molecular-weight proteins might derive from two macromolecules of 120 kDa (consisting of 14-38 kDa subunits) and 150 kDa (7-15 kDa subunits) of Taenia solium metacestode (TsM) cyst fluid (CF). We characterized serological properties of these two proteins and established an inimunopotent chimera. The 120 and 150 kDa proteins harbored 54-81 and 94-98% of the antibody-binding activity of the crude CF with minimal antigenic cross-reactivity to each other. The expression and immune recognition of the 150 kDa subunits were relatively constant, regardless of the different geographical origins of the CF collected, while those of the 120 kDa subunits varied by their origins (Asia vs. America).

In particular, a homologue of the Rep* locus

In particular, a homologue of the Rep* locus Quizartinib in EBV was predicted in the genome of CeHV-15, which is notable because Rep* of EBV was not predicted by the previously developed consensus sequence for EBNA1′s binding DNA. The Rep* of CeHV-15 functions as an origin of DNA synthesis in the EBV-positive cell line Raji; this finding thus builds on a set of DNA-binding sites for EBNA1 predicted in silico.”
“Humans’ ability to recognize static images of self body-parts can

be lost following a lesion of the right hemisphere [Frassinetti, F, Maini, M., Romualdi, S., Galante, E., & Avanzi, S. (2008). Is it mine? Hemispheric asymmetries in corporeal self-recognition. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience,20,1507-1516]. Here we investigated whether the visual information provided by the movement of self body-parts may be separately processed by right brain-damaged selleckchem (RBD) patients and constitute a valuable cue to reduce their deficit in self body-parts processing. To pursue these aims, neurological healthy subjects and RBD patients were submitted to a matching-task of a pair of subsequent visual stimuli, in two conditions. In the dynamic condition, participants were shown movies of moving body-parts (hand, foot, arm and leg); in the static condition, participants were shown still images of the same body-parts. In each condition,

on half of the trials at least one stimulus in the pair was from the participant’s own body (‘Self condition), whereas on the remaining half of the trials both stimuli were from another person (‘Other’ condition). Results showed that in healthy participants the self-advantage was present when processing both static and dynamic body-parts, but it was more important in the latter condition. In RBD patients, however, the self-advantage was absent in the static, but present in the dynamic body-parts condition. These findings suggest that visual information from self body-parts in motion

may be processed independently in patients with impaired static self-processing, thus pointing to a modular organization of the mechanisms responsible for the self/other distinction. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The Quizartinib molecular weight FAST proteins are a unique family of virus-encoded cell-cell membrane fusion proteins. In the absence of a cleavable N-terminal signal peptide, a single-pass transmembrane domain (TMD) functions as a reverse signal-anchor to direct the FAST proteins into the plasma membrane in an N(exo)/C(cyt) topology. There is little information available on the role of the FAST protein TMD in the cell-cell membrane fusion reaction. We show that in the absence of conservation in the length or primary amino acid sequence, the p14 TMD can be functionally exchanged with the TMDs of the p10 and p15 FAST proteins.

The present study examined two polymorphisms of GRIN1, rs11146020

The present study examined two polymorphisms of GRIN1, rs11146020 (G1001C) and rs1126442 (G2108A), in 100 male Thai METH-dependent patients and 103 healthy controls using PCR-RFLP techniques. Neither polymorphism was significantly associated with METH dependence, although rs1126442 was highly significantly associated with METH-dependent psychosis, in which the A allele showed reduced frequency (P<0.00001). The present findings indicate that the rs1126442 of GRIN1 contributes to the genetic vulnerability to psychosis in METH-dependent subjects in the Thai

population. Selleck Poziotinib (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes poses a major public health challenge. Population-based screening and early treatment for type 2 diabetes

could reduce this growing burden. However, uncertainty persists around the benefits of screening for type 2 diabetes. We assessed the effect of a population-based stepwise screening programme on mortality.

Methods In a pragmatic parallel group, cluster-randomised trial, 33 general practices in eastern England were randomly assigned by the method of minimisation in an unbalanced design to: screening followed by intensive multifactorial treatment for people diagnosed with diabetes Bromosporine order (n=15); screening plus routine care of diabetes according to national guidelines (n=13); and a no-screening control group (n=5). The study population consisted of 20 184 individuals aged 40-69 years (mean 58 years), at high risk of prevalent undiagnosed diabetes, on the basis of a previously validated risk score. In screening practices, individuals were invited to a stepwise programme

including random capillary blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) tests, a fasting capillary blood glucose test, and a confirmatory oral glucose tolerance test. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. All participants were flagged for mortality surveillance by the England and Wales Office of National Statistics. Analysis was by intention-to-screen and compared all-cause mortality rates between screening and control groups. This study is registered, number ISRCTN86769081.

Findings Of 16 047 high-risk individuals in screening practices, 15 089 (94%) BMS345541 solubility dmso were invited for screening during 2001-06, 11 737 (73%) attended, and 466 (3%) were diagnosed with diabetes. 4137 control individuals were followed up. During 184 057 person-years of follow up (median duration 9.6 years [IQR 8.9-9.9]), there were 1532 deaths in the screening practices and 377 in control practices (mortality hazard ratio [HR] 1.06, 95% CI 0.90-1.25). We noted no significant reduction in cardiovascular (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.75-1.38), cancer (1.08, 0.90-1.30), or diabetes-related mortality (1.26, 0.75-2.10) associated with invitation to screening.

The results showed the possibility of predicting subjective prefe

The results showed the possibility of predicting subjective preference from a short interval of functional near-infrared spectroscopy measurements of the anterior frontal regions. In addition, the pattern localization results showed the neuroscientific validity of the constructed classifier. NeuroReport 22:269-273 (C) 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. As HCV infects only human and chimpanzee cells, antiviral therapy and vaccine development have been hampered by the lack of a convenient small-animal model. In this Selleck Y 27632 study we further

investigate how the species tropism of HCV is modulated at the level of cell entry. It has been previously determined that the tight junction protein occludin (OCLN) is essential for HCV host cell entry and that human OCLN is more efficient than the mouse ortholog at mediating HCV cell entry. To further investigate the relationship between OCLN sequence and HCV species tropism, we compared OCLN proteins from a range of species for their ability to

mediate infection of naturally OCLN-deficient 786-O cells with lentiviral pseudoparticles bearing the HCV glycoproteins. While primate sequences function equivalently to human OCLN, canine, hamster, and rat OCLN had intermediate activities, and guinea pig OCLN was completely nonfunctional. Through analysis of chimeras between these OCLN proteins and alanine scanning mutagenesis of the extracellular domains of OCLN, we identified the second BV-6 molecular weight half of the second extracellular loop (EC2) PSI-7977 nmr and specific amino acids within this domain to be critical for modulating the HCV cell entry factor activity of this

protein. Furthermore, this critical region of EC2 is flanked by two conserved cysteine residues that are essential for HCV cell entry, suggesting that a subdomain of EC2 may be defined by a disulfide bond.”
“Our previous studies have shown that histamine existed widely in the sympathetic nervous system and functioned differentially on the sympathetic nerve activation level. Therefore, in this study, we tried to find out whether it is the special exocytosis/recycling of histamine-containing vesicles that contribute to those differential histamine synaptic effects. By using N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)4-(4-(dibutylamino) styryl) pyridinium dibromide and histamine immunostaining methods, we confirmed that histamine was stored in small vesicles and found that the histamine-containing vesicles included the recycling pool and the reserve pool. However, we also found for the first time that the release and mobility kinetics of histamine-containing vesicles were identical to that of histamine-negative vesicles. In conclusion, these findings provide further characters of histamine as a sympathetic neurotransmitter. NeuroReport 22:274-281 (C) 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

(C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “

(C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Since the introduction of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), long-term follow-up studies reporting

single-device results are scarce. In this study, we focus on EVAR repair with the Talent stein graft (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, Calif).

Methods: Between July 2000 and December 2007, 365 patients underwent elective EVAR with a Talent device. Patient data were gathered prospectively and evaluated retrospectively. By American Society of Anesthesiologists category, click here 74% were categories III and IV. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scanning was performed before discharge, at 3, 12 months, and yearly thereafter. Data are presented according to reporting standards for EVAR

Results: The mean proximal aortic neck diameter was 27 mm (range, 16-36 mm), with a neck length <15 mm in 31% (data available for 193 patients). Deployment of endografts was successful in

361 of 365 patients (99%). Initially, conversion to laparotomy was necessary in four patients. Primary technical success determined by www.selleckchem.com/products/KU-55933.html results from computed tomography (CT) scans before discharge was achieved in 333 patients (91%). Proximal type I endoleaks were present in 28 patients (8%) during follow-up, and 14 of these patients needed additional treatment for type I endoleak. The 30-day mortality for the whole Talent group was 1.1% (4 of 365). Follow-up www.selleck.cn/products/selonsertib-gs-4997.html to 84 months is reported for 24 patients. During follow-up, 122 (33%) patients died; in nine, death was abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)-related (including 30-day mortality). Kaplan-Meier estimates revealed primary clinical success rates of 98% at I year, 93% at 2 years, 88% at 3 years, 79% at 4 years, 64% at 5 years, 51% at 6 years, and 48% at 7 years. Secondary interventions were performed in 73 of 365

patients (20%). Ten conversions for failed endografts were performed. Life-table yearly risk for AAA-related reintervention was 6%, yearly risk for conversion to open repair was 1.1%, yearly risk for total mortality was 8.9%, and yearly risk for AAA-related mortality was 0.8%.

Conclusion: Initially, technical success of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) using the Talent endograft is high, with acceptable yearly risk for AAA-related mortality and conversion. However, a substantial amount of mainly endovascular reinterventions is necessary during long-term follow-up to achieve these results. (J Vasc Surg 2011;53:293-8.)”
“Objective: :his study compared, at a national level, trends in utilization, mortality, and stroke after carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) from 2005 to 2007.

Moreover, it is cost-effective because the

de-airing time

Moreover, it is cost-effective because the

de-airing time is short and no extra expenses are involved.”
“Parkinson disease is a specific form of neurodegeneration characterized by a loss of nigra-striatal dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain of humans. The disease is also characterized by an increase in oxidative stress and a loss of glutathione in the midbrain region. A potential Dinaciclib supplier link between all these factors is the oxidation of dopamine to dopaminochrome (DAC). Using the murine mesencephalic cell line MN9D, we have shown that DAC [50-250 mu M] leads to cell death in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas oxidized L-dopa, dopachrome [50-250 mu M] is only toxic at the highest concentration used. Furthermore, chronic exposure of MN9D cells to low concentrations of DAC [50-100 mu M] is cytotoxic between 48 and 96 h. DAC also increases superoxide production within MN9D cells as indicated by dihydroethidium fluorescence, that can be prevented by co-administration with the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine [5 mM]. Moreover, the

cytotoxicity induced by DAC can also be prevented by administration of N-acetylcysteine [1-5 mM]. Finally, depletion of reduced glutathione in MN9D cells by buthionine EPZ004777 sulfoximine 150-100 mu M] administration significantly enhances the cytotoxic effect of low concentrations of DAC [50-100 mu M] and DAC 1175 mu M] itself reduces the proportion of oxidized glutathione in total glutathione within 30 min of administration in MN9D cells. Overall, we have shown that DAC causes MN91) cell death in an oxidatively dependent manner that appears closely linked with a rapid loss of reduced glutathione. These findings have implications for understanding the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative pathways in Parkinson disease. Fedratinib chemical structure (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Vascular endothelial growth

factor, a critical factor in angiogenesis, mediates stem cell paracrine protective effects on ischemic myocardium. Studies on the role of sex in stem cell function have demonstrated that female mesenchymal stem cells produce greater vascular endothelial growth factor and provide better cardiac protection compared with male mesenchymal stem cells. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which estrogen affects mesenchymal stem cell function as a potential therapeutic measure during ex vivo expansion, before therapeutic use.

Methods: Asingle-step purification method using adhesion to cell culture plastic was adopted to isolate mesenchymal stem cells from wild-type, estrogen receptor-alpha knockout, estrogen receptor-beta knockout, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 knockout mice. Mesenchymal stem cells were treated with or without 17 beta-estradiol, estrogen receptor-alpha agonist (propyl pyrazoletriol), and estrogen receptor-beta agonist (diarylpropionitrile).

All rights reserved “
“A long RT-PCR method was developed to

All rights reserved.”
“A long RT-PCR method was developed to amplify the norovirus genome. Starting from RNA extracted directly from clinical samples

and using broadly reactive primers, it can generate near full-length amplicons that allow for easy Y 27632 determination of the near complete genomic sequence. Two norovirus isolates from Toronto, Canada, in 2002 and 2005 were sequenced. This approach will facilitate molecular epidemiology studies of noroviruses. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders. Despite the extensive study of the neurobiological correlates of this disorder, the underlying mechanisms of PTSD are still poorly understood. Recently, a study demonstrated that dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic glucocorticoid, can up-regulate p11, known as S100A10-protein which is down-regulated in patients with depression, (Yao et al., 1999; Huang et al., 2003) a common comorbid disorder in PTSD. These observations led to our hypothesis that traumatic stress may alter expression of p11 mediated through a glucocorticold receptor. Here, we demonstrate that inescapable tail shock increased both prefrontal cortical pi 1 mRNA levels and plasma corticosterone Selleckchem SN-38 levels in rats. We also found that Dex up-regulated p11 expression in SH-SY5Y cells through glucocorticoid

response elements (GREs) within the p11 promoter. This response was attenuated by either RU486, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist

or mutating two of three glucocorticoid response elements (GRE2 and GRE3) in the p11 promoter. Finally, we showed that p11 mRNA levels were increased in postmortem prefrontal cortical tissue (area 46) of patients with PTSD. The data obtained from our work in a rat model of inescapable tail shock, a p11-transfected cell line and postmortem brain tissue from PTSD patients outline a possible mechanism by which p11 is regulated tuclazepam by glucocorticoids elevated by traumatic stress. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IBRO.”
“Congenital human cytomegalovirus infections are the major infectious cause of birth defects in the United States. How this virus crosses the placenta and causes fetal disease is poorly understood. Guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) is a related virus that provides an important model for studying cytomegaloviral congenital transmission and pathogenesis. In order to facilitate genetic analysis of GPCMV, the 232 kb GPCMV genome was cloned as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). The BAC vector sequences were flanked by LoxP sites to allow efficient excision using Cre recombinase. All initial clones contained spontaneous deletions of viral sequences and reconstituted mutant viruses with impaired growth kinetics in vitro. The deletions in one BAC were repaired using Escherichia coli genetics.