prenatal adverse events were identified when a


prenatal adverse events were identified when a fatal or potentially fatal event occurred that could have been avoided by timely delivery.\n\nRESULTS: The prospective risk of an unexpected adverse event dropped from 16.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.6-20.5%) to 0% (95% CI, 0-11%) between 26-36 weeks. At 32 weeks, the residual risk was 1 in 17 (95% CI, 1/28-1/11). The perinatal rate of death or severe GM6001 molecular weight brain lesions dropped from 35% (25-47%) in infants delivered at 26-28 weeks down to 3% (1-6%) at 34-36 weeks.\n\nCONCLUSION: Our results did not identify an optimal cut-off for elective preterm delivery in laser-operated twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Perinatal morbidity appears low from >32 weeks and the decision for elective delivery should be

based upon medical history, parental demand, and expert assessment.”
“Hydrodynamic conditions are important factors for planktonic algae growth, through introducing two parameters which express the optimal velocity and the velocity range for planktonic algae growth, a new velocity factor was put forward for the formula of growth rate. Therefore, the two-dimensional unsteady ecological dynamic model for algae growth was established to analyze the effects of hydrodynamic conditions learn more on algae growth in Chongqing Reach of Jialing River in China. The temporal and spatial distribution of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration was simulated numerically for various water levels, under climate conditions in period of high frequency for algae blooms of Three Gorges Reservoir and nutrition status at present in the research reach. The corresponding locations and areas of likely algae blooms were analyzed and forecasted. The results showed that about 0.04 ms(-1) was

the optimal velocity for algae growth, and the occurrence of algae blooms in large scale is almost Nepicastat molecular weight impossible because of relatively high water flow velocity for Jialing River. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“In this experiment, sorghum substitution with full-fat corn germ meal was evaluated in feed for broiler chickens. Two experiments were carried out in a randomized complete design with four levels of substitution of sorghum substitution with full-fat corn germ meal (0, 33.3, 66.7 and 100%) as energetic concentrate in diets produced exclusively with vegetable ingredients (experiment 1) or with ingredients of animal origin (experiment 2) with four replications each. Performance (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion) were evaluated and the carcass and cuts yield, at absolute weight, expressed as percentage of live weight or eviscerated or plucked carcass. In experiment 1, a quadratic effect was observed for final weight and weight gain, that were best at the 21.03 and 21.8% levels of sorghum substitution with full-fat corn germ meal. In experiment 2, a quadratic effect was observed weight gain and feed conversion, that were best at the 35.02 and 15.

In particular, the lower paracentral visual field in the better e

In particular, the lower paracentral visual field in the better eye was correlated most strongly of all. Driving, however, strongly correlated with the upper hemifield see more in the better eye.”
“Understanding participants’ preferences for the return of individual research results (IRR) in genomic research may allow for the implementation of more beneficial result disclosure methods. We tested four preference-setting models through cognitive interviews of parents to explore how parents

conceptualize the process of setting preferences and which disease characteristics they believe to be most important when deciding what results to receive on their child. Severity and preventability of a condition were highly influential in decision making and certain groups of research results were anticipated by participants to have negative psychological effects. These findings informed the development of an educational tool and preference-setting model that can be scaled for use in the return of IRR from large biobank studies.”
“Preemptive therapy at CMV reactivation has diminished post-transplant CMV mortality. Furthermore, recent studies suggest a favorable ‘virus-versus-leukemia’

effect from reactivating CMV, reducing relapse of AML after SCT. We studied the relationship of CMV reactivation with leukemic relapse in 110 patients with CML receiving HLA-identical sibling SCT between 1993 and 2008. Of these, 79 (72%) were in chronic phase, 5 in BAY 73-4506 second chronic phase, 17 in accelerated phase and 9 in blast phase. A total of 97 patients (88%) received a myeloablative conditioning regimen, 97 received 4-log ex vivo T cell-depleted grafts and 13 received T-replete BKM120 in vivo grafts. CMV reactivation before day 100 was observed in 72 patients (65.5%). At a median follow-up of 6.2 years, CMV reactivation < day 100 as a time-dependent covariate was an independent factor associated with decreased relapse. We conclude that CMV reactivation may contribute to a beneficial GVL effect in CML transplant recipients.”
“Cadherins mediate cell cell adhesion but are also involved in

intracellular signaling pathways associated with neuropsychiatric disease. Most of the similar to 100 cadherins that are expressed in the brain exhibit characteristic spatiotemporal expression profiles. Cadherins have been shown to regulate neural tube regionalization, neuronal migration, gray matter differentiation, neural circuit formation, spine morphology, synapse formation and synaptic remodeling. The dysfunction of the cadherin-based adhesive system may alter functional connectivity and coherent information processing in the human brain in neuropsychiatric disease. Several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as epilepsy/mental retardation, autism, bipolar disease and schizophrenia, have been associated with cadherins, mostly by genome-wide association studies.

Both cream formulations were assessed,

using Visioscan VC

Both cream formulations were assessed,

using Visioscan VC 98, for various parameters including texture parameters (energy, contrast and variance) as well as for skin roughness (Ser), skin scaliness (SEsc), skin smoothness (SEsm) and skin wrinkles (Sew).\n\nResults: Unlike the cream base, the extract cream exhibited steady, significant improvement in skin parameters over the 3-month period of application. Images showed visible improvement of the overall skin appearance and reduction of fine lines by the extract cream. Furthermore, GF120918 order skin texture (variance and contrast) and SELS (SEr, SEsc, SEsm and SEw) parameters showed significant decline (p < 0.05) and the texture parameter of energy showed significant increase (p < 0.05).\n\nConclusion: Our findings indicate that the cream containing 3 % Acacia nilotica bark extract possesses anti-aging effect and improves skin surface

“An Hologic QDR4500A dual energy X-ray absorptiometer (DXA) was used to measure live body composition in 15 second-cross wether lambs ((Border Leicester x Merino) x Poll Dorset) aged 6-8 months (17-50 kg) and 13 mature ewes (composite terminal sire line based largely on Poll Dorset, White Suffolk and Texel breeds) (44-71 kg). After slaughter, DXA scans were also performed on the whole carcasses. Values determined by DXA including total tissue mass (TTM), GSK1838705A lean tissue mass (LTM), fat tissue mass (FTM) and bone mineral content (BMC) for the half carcass were evaluated by comparison with chemically determined composition. In the case of

BMC the relationship was with chemically determined JQ1 clinical trial ash content. Live weight and chemically determined lean, fat and ash were strongly related to DXA-derived values for whole body TTM, LTM, FTM and BMC, respectively (R(2) = 0.999, 0.988, 0.980 and 0.977, respectively). Carcass weight and chemically determined lean, fat and ash were strongly related to DXA-derived values for carcass TTM, LTM, FTM and BMC, respectively (R(2) = 0.998, 0.984, 0.986 and 0.906, respectively). However, because DXA estimates were different from chemically determined values in this sample of carcasses, they needed to be adjusted with the use of appropriate regression equations to correct the inbuilt algorithms used to predict human body composition. These data demonstrate the efficacy of DXA as a non-destructive method for determining the composition of the whole body and carcasses of sheep. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Data from a dietary-reporting validation study with fourth-grade children were analyzed to investigate a possible relationship of body mass index (BMI) with daily participation in school meals and observed energy intake at school meals, and whether the relationships differed by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria).\n\nMethods: Data were collected in 17, 17, and 8 schools during three school years.

04 mu g/ml monthly decrease in plasma CFD concentration, whereas

04 mu g/ml monthly decrease in plasma CFD concentration, whereas no changes were observed for C5a and C3d. Lutein supplementation markedly decreases circulating Selleckchem 4-Hydroxytamoxifen levels of the complement factors CFD, C5a and C3d levels, which might allow a simple method to control this inflammatory pathway of the innate immune system.”
“Microscopical visualization of nanoparticles in tissues is essential for assessing their distribution in whole organisms and their interaction with the cellular microenvironment, including possible toxic effects. However, labeling of nanoparticles with fluorescent dyes may affect their physicochemical properties. Moreover,

the detection of organic nanoparticles in their tissue context often poses a particular challenge due to their closer similarities with biomolecules. As part of a biodistribution and toxicity study on organic anti- inflammatory nanoscaled dendritic polyglycerol sulfate amine (dPGS amine) we have established light microscopic autoradiography Apoptosis inhibitor (LMA) for the tracking of S-35 labeled dPGS in standard histopathological tissue samples following intravenous injection in mice. The dPG(35)S amine was specifically localized in hepatic Kupffer cells with no histopathologic evidence of toxic, degenerate or inflammatory side effects. The combination of radiolabeling of organic nanoparticles

with LMA offers a novel approach for their localization in microscopical slides, also allowing for a simultaneous standard toxicopathology analysis. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“An VX-770 in vitro air-stable palladium catalyst formed in situ from commercially available components efficiently catalyzed the transetherification between ethyl vinyl ether and various alcohols to lead to the corresponding original vinyl ethers in 40-84% yield in a single step. First, a series of vinyl ether monomers that bear various functional groups, such as halogenomethyl groups, amino groups, carbonate side-groups, oligo(ethylene oxide), and oligo(fluoroether) chains, were prepared and characterized by H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy. Then, radical copolymerization of such novel vinyl ethers with chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) led to alternating poly(CTFE-alt-VE) copolymers that contained

various functional dangling groups. A series of copolymers with different amounts of functional groups were obtained in fair to good yield (32-81%). Their alternating structure was confirmed by elemental analysis as well as by H-1, F-19, and C-13 NMR spectroscopy. Their thermogravimetric analyses under air showed decomposition temperatures at 10% weight loss (T-d,T- 10%) ranging from 214 to 324 degrees C. The oligo(fluoroether) chain-based copolymers appeared more thermostable than those based on other various functional groups.”
“Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule involved in many reproductive processes. Its importance during oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) has been demonstrated in various species although sometimes with contradictory results.


vascular control and complete resec


vascular control and complete resection of large renal and adrenal masses require an adequate exposition; the knowledge of surgical techniques such as supramesocolic approach to the left renal pedicle is very useful and may ease the course of retroperitoneal operations avoiding complications and giving comfort in a frequently difficult operation.”
“The types of microalgae strains and the method used in lipid extraction have become crucial factors which influence the productivity of crude oil. In this paper, Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp. were chosen as the strains and four different methods were used to extract the lipids: Hara and Radin, Folch, Chen and Bligh and Dyer. These methods were learn more performed by using conventional heating and microwave irradiation methods. Results revealed that highest lipid yield from the different species was obtained using different extraction methods; both under microwave irradiation. The lipid yield for Tetraselmis MK-0518 nmr sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. was highest when Hara and Radin (8.19%), and Folch (8.47%) methods were used respectively under microwave irradiation. The lipids extracted were then transesterified to biodiesel and the quality of the biodiesel was analyzed using the gas chromatography. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A combined setup of quartz

crystal microbalance and generalized ellipsometry can be used to comprehensively investigate complex functional coatings comprising stimuli-responsive polymer brushes and 3D nanostructures in a dynamic, noninvasive in situ measurement. While the quartz crystal microbalance detects the overall change in areal mass, for instance, during a swelling or adsorption process, the generalized ellipsometry data

can be evaluated Bindarit in terms of a layered model to distinguish between processes occurring within the intercolumnar space or on top of the anisotropic nanocolumns. Silicon films with anisotropic nanocolumnar morphology were prepared by the glancing angle deposition technique and further functionalized by grafting of poly-(acrylic acid) or poly-(N- isopropylacrylamide) chains. Investigations of the thermoresponsive swelling of the poly-(N-isopropylacrylamide) brush on the Si nanocolumns proved the successful preparation of a stimuli-responsive coating. Furthermore, the potential of these novel coatings in the field of biotechnology was explored by investigation of the adsorption of the model protein bovine serum albumin. Adsorption, retention, and desorption triggered by a change in the pH value is observed using poly-(acrylic acid) functionalized nanostructures, although generalized ellipsometry data revealed that this process occurs only on top of the nanostructures. Poly-(N-isopropylacrylamide) is found to render the nanostructures non-fouling properties.

There was no evidence to support the use of a R2 resection (debul

There was no evidence to support the use of a R2 resection (debulking), with or without tumour ablation, to improve either OS or QoL. There was little evidence to guide sequencing of surgery for patients presenting in Stage IV with resectable disease, and none to support a resection of asymptomatic primary tumours in the presence of non-resectable liver metastases. ConclusionLow-level BIIB057 concentration recommendations are offered to assist in the management of patients with neuroendocrine liver metastases, along with recommendations for future studies.”
“Rhabdomyosarcoma is a highly metastatic tumor,

mostly observed in children and adolescence. When diagnosed at early stages it is mostly curable. However, in advanced or metastatic stages the 5-years survival Selleck Dinaciclib rate is below 20%. Thus, new treatment strategies for this tumor are needed. In this paper we showed that HSP90 inhibitors, geldanamycin and its analogs, can profoundly affect proliferation of rhabdomyosarcoma cells. We also showed that blocking of HSP90 function induces apoptosis of tumor cells and downregulates expression of anti apoptotic protein AKT. Cells exposed to geldanamycin and its analogs exhibit strong reduction of MET receptor expression and subsequent inhibition of HGF-dependent tumor cells migration and invasion. Interestingly, at concentrations sufficient to block tumor cells growth and motility, the 17AEP-GA, 17AAG and 17DMAP-GA

were not toxic or only slightly toxic toward normal hematopoietic, mesenchymal and endothelial cells. This Could be due to low HSP90 expression both at mRNA and protein level in these cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that blocking HSP90 action through geldanmycins could be in the future MK-4827 research buy a part

of new therapeutic strategies in rhabdomyosarcoma treatment.”
“Introduction: Tumour-associated urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is a critical marker of invasion and metastasis, and it is recognised as having strong prognostic relevance as well as being a therapeutic target. The specific uPA inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor type-2 (PAI-2, SerpinB2) specifically targets cell bound uPA and is internalised. Furthermore, preclinical studies have established the “proof-of-principle” of uPA-targeting by PAI-2-cytotoxin conjugates in human carcinoma models. However, these studies also suggest that PAI-2 is rapidly cleared via the renal system with low total dose reaching the tumour. In this study, a comparative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and biodistribution (BD) analysis of different forms of PAI-2 labelled with the radioisotopes iodine-123 (I-123) and technetium-99m (Tc-99m) was undertaken.\n\nMethods: The pharmacokinetic (PK) properties and BD of wild-type, Delta CD-loop and PEGylated Delta CD-loop PAI-2 labelled with the commonly used diagnostic SPELT radioisotopes (TC)-T-99m or I-123 were compared in mouse models of human prostate carcinoma.

It was also proposed in selected

uT2-3 patients Preopera

It was also proposed in selected

uT2-3 patients. Preoperative staging was compared with histopathologic findings.\n\nEighty-one patients (46 males, mean age 66 years) underwent TEM. Mean distance of the tumor from the anal verge was 6.6 cm (range 2-12 cm). ERUS staged 15 of 27 adenomas (55%) as uT1. Of 54 carcinomas, 5 were pT0 because Selleck GSK1838705A TEM was performed to remove resection margins of a malign polyp already snared. Five of 19 pTis (26%) were overstaged uT1, while 7 of 17 pT1 (41%) were understaged. Overall, ERUS enabled distinction between early and advanced rectal lesion with 96% sensitivity and 85% specificity, giving accuracy of 94% (65/67). Thirteen patients had advanced lesions (eight pT2 and five pT3). Only in two of them (15%) was depth of invasion underestimated by ERUS (one uT0,

one uT1) and thus was subsequent salvage surgery necessary.\n\nERUS is useful to confirm the diagnosis of adenoma and predict depth of mural invasion in early rectal cancer. Differentiation between T0/is and T1 lesions remains challenging, however this does not usually influence surgical strategy.”
“Objective: We report preoperative testosterone stimulation based on glans width measurements in patients with midshaft and proximal hypospadias, revealing androgen resistance in those with proximal hypospadias.\n\nMethods: Patients had maximum glans width measured preoperatively. Those < 14 mm initially received 2 mg/kg testosterone MCC-950 cypionate intramuscularly for two to three doses, with the aim of increasing glans width >= 15 mm. Not all patients achieved targeted growth, and some were subsequently treated with escalating doses of testosterone.\n\nResults: 5/15 midshaft

patients had two to three doses of 2 mg/kg testosterone, with all increasing glans width to >= 15 mm. 29/47 proximal patients had testosterone, with 13 (57%) not reaching desired glans width. Six of these and another six patients had escalating doses from 4 to 32 mg/kg testosterone, with 11 then achieving targeted glans width. Relative androgen resistance was found in 19/29 (66%) proximal cases, including all treated patients with perineal hypospadias.\n\nConclusions: 39/62 (63%) patients met objective criteria BYL719 chemical structure for preoperative testosterone stimulation based on glans width < 14 mm, which is less than the average normal newborn glans diameter. Evidence of relative androgen resistance was found in 19 (49%), all with proximal hypospadias. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Journal of Pediatric Urology Company.”
“Background and Objective: The photodynamic therapy is a well-known method of treatment of both malignant tumors and non-tumor lesions in human patients. In the present study, we aimed at evaluating the in vitro efficacy of the new photosensitizing agents, vacataporphyrin (VP), and divacataporphyrin (DVP).

Results were compared with the flow cytometric differential R

Results were compared with the flow cytometric differential.\n\nResults: The flow cytometric WBC and differential correlated well with the Sysmex XE2100 hematology analyzer and gave comparable results to the manual differential. Areas of greatest discordance included enumeration of populations present at low numbers and misclassification of cells with unusual morphology by the manual method. This study describes a novel single-tube flow cytometric method for performing a WBC count and 8-part differential that performs well with both normal and

difficult patient samples. These findings confirm the results of prior studies supporting the use of a flow cytometric differential as an improved reference method for the WBC differential and extend prior efforts by allowing positive identification of most cell populations. (C) 2010 International Clinical Cytometry Society”
“EBV-miR-BART1 has been found selleck inhibitor to be highly expressed in some cancers including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but its exact roles in the pathogenesis of NPC remain unclear. Here, we did RNA deep sequencing to compare the gene expression profile between EBV-miR-BART1-expressing CNE1 cells and the control cells to determine the possible effects of EBV-miR-BART1 in NPC. Gene expression profiling analysis unexpectedly showed a significant

number of up- and down-modulated metabolism-associated genes, such as G6PD, SAT1, ASS1, PAST1, FUT1, SGPL1, DHRS3, B4GALT1, PHGDH, IDH2, PISD, UGT8, LDHB and GALNT1, in EBV-miR-BART1-expressing ATM/ATR phosphorylation NPC cells, which were next confirmed by RT-qPCR. Moreover, of these metabolism-genes, find more PSAT1 and PHGDH expression levels were significantly upregulated and most of other genes were obviously up-expressed

in NPC specimens compared with chronic nasopharyngitis (CNP) tissues. Collectively, we for the first time found the effects of EBV-miR-BART1 on the expression of mechanism-associated genes in NPC, suggesting a novel role of EBV-miR-BART1 in cancer metabolism, which remains to be fully elucidated. (c) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“We used three kinds of polymers that interact with living cells in different modes: poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated phospholipid (PEG-lipid) and poly(vinyl alcohol) carrying alkyl side chains (PVA-alkyl), expected to anchor to the membrane lipid bilayer through hydrophobic interactions; N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-PEG (PEG-NHS), which covalently bonds with all kinds of membrane proteins having amino groups on cell surfaces; and polyelectrolytes, poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) and carboxylated PVA (PVA-COOH), which interact with cells electrostatically. CCRF-CEM (T-cell like) and HEK293 (adherent cell) cell lines were used. We followed the surface dynamics of fluorescently labeled polymers on living cells over time using confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry. PEI destroyed cells, while PVA-COOH did not interact with cells.

This occurs, for example, when inclusion probabilities for the su

This occurs, for example, when inclusion probabilities for the subsample depend on first-stage results and/or on a covariate related to disease status. Reference CH5183284 research buy standard bias arises when the reference test itself has imperfect sensitivity and specificity, but this information is ignored in the analysis. Reference standard bias typically results in underestimation of the sensitivity and

specificity of the test under evaluation, since subjects that are correctly diagnosed by the test can be considered as misdiagnosed owing to the imperfections in the reference standard. In this paper, we describe a Bayesian approach for simultaneously addressing both verification and reference standard bias. Our models consider two types of verification bias, first when subjects are selected for

verification based on initial test results alone, and then when selection is based on initial test results and a covariate. We also present a model that adjusts for a third potential bias that arises when tests are analyzed assuming conditional independence between tests, but some dependence exists between the initial test and the reference test. We examine the properties of our models using simulated data, and then apply selleck compound them to a study of a screening test for dementia, providing bias-adjusted estimates of the sensitivity and specificity. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Zinc finger protein 191, ZNF24 and Zfp191 in both humans and mice belong to the SCAN domain subfamily of Selleckchem MAPK Inhibitor Library Kruppel-like zinc finger transcription factors. Previous studies have suggested that Zfp191 is a pleiotropic factor involved in embryonic development, hematopoiesis and tumorigenesis. However, little is known about its target genes or its role in other physiological and pathological processes. We have identified the putative target genes of Zfp191, using an in silico genome-wide scan. Three hundred and fifty-five putative target genes were identified, which were enriched

into the pathways of immune response according to the pathway analysis. These targets indicated that Zfp191 may function as a mediator of the immune response. This was verified in mice heterozygous for Zfp191 (Zfp191(+/-)) using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxic shock model. After LPS injection, Zfp191(+/-) mice produced significantly less IL-1 beta and IL-6 compared to wild-type mice and were resistant to LPS-induced endotoxic shock. The loss of Zfp191 may suppress systemic inflammation by reducing these cytokine levels during LPS-induced endotoxic shock.”
“Background. There may be distinct pathways for transmission of histaminergic and nonhistaminergic itch, but all scratching behaviours elicited by histamine-dependent and histamine-independent pruritogens are diminished when spinal bombesin-recognized neurones are ablated.\n\nAim.

Results There was no statistical significance between the dai

\n\nResults There was no statistical significance between the daily inhalable particle and daily incidence of sudden unexplained death. Incidence rate of sudden unexplained death had nonlinear positive correlation with daily temperature. When the temperature was 5 degrees C above the daily average temperature, the daily incidence of sudden unexplained death went up with the rising Selleckchem Bromosporine temperature.\n\nConclusion Temperature may be one of the key risk factor or precipitating factor of SUD. Chin Med J 2012;125(24):4429-4433″
“We report on magnetic imaging study of regular hexagonal shaped NiFe elements arranged in different configurations.

By making use of stray field with moderate strength and well-defined symmetry, which is lacking in vortices formed

in circular elements, it is possible to control the relative chirality of SB273005 nmr vortex in a ring network of hexagons unlike in an array network. However, the alternating chirality of the hexagons disappears when the interelemental spacing becomes large, an element is missing from the ring network, or they are arranged in linear chains. The results can be understood by the symmetry and direction of the stray field generated by the individual elements. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3067852]“
“Fresh and post-thaw parameters (motility, morphology and viability) of stallion epididymal spermatozoa that have been and have not been exposed to seminal plasma were evaluated, and directly compared to fresh and post-thaw parameters of ejaculated Selleck STI571 spermatozoa. Six sperm categories of each stallion (n = 4) were evaluated for motility, morphology and viability. These categories were fresh ejaculated spermatozoa (Fr-E), fresh epididymal spermatozoa that had been exposed to seminal plasma (Fr-SP+), fresh epididymal spermatozoa that had never been exposed to seminal plasma (Fr-SP-), frozen-thawed ejaculated spermatozoa (Cr-E), frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa that had been exposed to seminal plasma prior to freezing (Cr-SP+) and frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa

that had never been exposed to seminal plasma (Cr-SP-).\n\nResults show that seminal plasma stimulates initial motility of fresh epididymal stallion spermatozoa while this difference in progressive motility is no longer present post-thaw; and that progressive motility of fresh or frozen-thawed ejaculated stallion spermatozoa is not always a good indicator for post-thaw progressive motility of epididymal spermatozoa.\n\nThis study shows that seminal plasma has a positive influence on the incidence of overall sperm defects, midpiece reflexes and distal cytoplasmic droplets in frozen-thawed stallion epididymal spermatozoa while the occurance of midpiece reflexes is likely to be linked to distal cytoplasmic droplets.