In addition to “soft tissue neoplasms”, MESH terms of the following more frequent types of soft tissue disease were used: “leiomyosarcoma”, “angiosarcoma”,
“liposarcoma”, “dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans”, “malignant fibrous histiocytoma”, “rhabdomyosarcoma”, “neurilemmoma”, “solitary fibrous tumor”, “gastrointestinal stromal tumor” and “desmoid tumor”. All articles related Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to humans and published in English between 1980 and 2011 in peer-reviewed journals were considered. The articles retrieved were reviewed independently by two of the authors (MON and ANM). To ensure that all relevant publications were captured, we performed a second literature search by cross-referencing bibliographies of all previously retained articles. Duplicate articles as well as those without a specific anorectal focus were then discarded. A total Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of 48 articles were retained from an initial list of 1,351 publications (Figure 1), based on abstract review. These 48 papers then underwent complete manuscript review and data extraction
to be included in this report (Table 1). Figure 1 Literature search and review algorithm Table 1 Summary of published literature on ARSTs Findings Leiomyosarcoma Leiomyosarcomas (LMS) are malignant soft tissue neoplasms arising from smooth muscle tissue located within the muscularis mucosa, muscularis propria and blood or lymphatic vessels (4). Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical LMSs are rare, but are the most common histological type of ARST, making up over 90% of reported cases (5). In a 2000 review by Hatch et al., 480 anorectal LMS cases were identified in the literature (6). They found the peak incidence Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of cases occurred at 50-69 years of age and only 6.4% of them were located to the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical anus. There seems to be a male predominance for LMSs of the rectal region and a female predominance for tumors occurring within the anal canal (7). Anal lesions are often plaque-like protrusions arising intra-murally or sub-mucosally
from the posterior aspect of the anorectum, with areas of pressure ulceration (8-10). Histologically, MYO10 LMSs feature spindle cells with elongated, blunt-ended nuclei in an eosinophillic cytoplasm. These cells exhibit a fascicular growth pattern originating from vascular tissue or muscularis mucosa (11). LMS frequently exhibit high mitotic activity, often greater than 50 mitosis per 50 high-powered fields (HPF) (12). Immunohistochemically, these tumors are positive for vimentin, actin, smooth muscle myosin and desmin, but are CD34, CD117 and K-RAS negative (12-15). Because of histological similarities, LMSs are often misdiagnosed as leiomyomas. K-RAS negativity, high mitotic activity, large tumor size, nuclear and cellular atypia as well as large size of the tumor and the presence of extensive necrosis are useful in this website confirming the diagnosis of LMS (16).