These findings can help guide the design of studies evaluating lo

These findings can help guide the design of studies evaluating long-term therapies among elderly post-MI patients.”
“OBJECTIVE: To assess the development

of anal cancer in women diagnosed with a human papillomavirus-related cervical, vulvar, or vaginal neoplasm.

METHODS: Using data from National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program from 1973 through 2007, 189,206 cases with either in situ or invasive cervical, vulvar, or vaginal neoplasm were followed for 138,553,519 person-years IKK inhibitor for the development of subsequent primary anal cancer. Standardized incidence ratios were calculated from the observed Selleckchem PD98059 number of subsequent anal cancers compared with those expected based on age-, race-, and calendar year-specific rates in the nonaffected population.

RESULTS: Anal cancer developed in 255 women with a history of in situ or invasive gynecologic neoplasm, aggregate standardized incidence ratio of 13.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.9-15.3), indicating a 13-fold increase in anal cancer compared with expected. The standardized incidence ratio for anal cancer incidence among women with in situ vulvar cancer was 22.2 (95% CI 16.7-28.4) and was 17.4 (95% CI 11.5-24.4) for those with

invasive vulvar cancer. The standardized incidence ratio for anal cancer incidence in women with in situ cervical cancer was 16.4 (95% CI 13.7-19.2) and was 6.2 (95% CI 4.1-8.7) for women with invasive cervical cancer. The standardized incidence ratio for anal cancer incidence among women with in situ vaginal cancer was 7.6 (95%

CI 2.4-15.6) and was 1.8 (95% CI 0.2-5.3) for invasive vaginal cancer.

CONCLUSION: Women with human papillomavirus-related gynecologic neoplasm are at higher risk for developing anal cancer compared with the general population. This high-risk BAY 63-2521 nmr population may benefit from close observation and screening for anal cancer. (Obstet Gynecol 2011;117:643-9) DOI:10.1097/AOG.0b013e31820bfb16″
“Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) has been shown to be safe and effective in appropriately selected pediatric and adolescent patients with paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and testicular germ-cell tumors (T-GCT). While the use of robot-assisted laparoscopy has expanded rapidly in many areas, there are very limited reports of its use with RPLND. We present two cases of adolescents who were treated using robot-assisted laparoscopic RPLND (R-RPLND)-one with paratesticular RMS (PT-RMS) and one with testicular GCT (T-GCT)-with good outcomes and low morbidity.

Enterococcus faecalis (E faecalis) is a Gram-positive bacterium

Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is a Gram-positive bacterium that survives not only

in the intestinal lumen but also within macrophages generating NO. It has been reported that E. faecalis generated the superoxide radical (O-2(-)). To elucidate the role of O-2(-) and NO in the mechanism for the pathogen surviving in the intestine and macrophages, we studied the role and metabolism of O-2(-) and NO in and around E. faecalis. Kinetic analysis revealed that E. faecalis generated 0.5 mu mol O-2(-)/min/10(8) cells in a glucose-dependent manner as determined using the cytochrome c reduction method. The presence of NOC12, an NO donor, strongly inhibited the growth of E. faecalis without affecting in the oxygen consumption. However, the growth rate of NOC12-pretreated E. faecalis in NO-free selleck kinase inhibitor medium was similar to that of untreated cells. Western blotting analysis revealed that the NOC12-treated E. faecalis revealed a large amount of nitrotyrosine-posititive proteins; the amounts of the modified proteins were higher in cytosol than in membranes. These observations suggested that O-2(-) generated by E. faecalis reacted with NO to form peroxinitrite (ONOO-) that preferentially nitrated tyrosyl residues in cytosolic

proteins, thereby reversibly inhibited cellular CX-5461 manufacturer growth. Since E. faecalis survives even within macrophages expressing NO synthase, similar metabolism of O-2(-) and NO may occur in and around phagocytized macrophages.”
“Background: Physiological-based pharmacokinetic models have been used to describe midazolam clearance (CL) maturation. There are no maturation descriptors of CL from neonate to adulthood based on reported estimates at different ages.

Methods: Published CL estimates after intravenous administration from time-concentration profiles were used to construct a maturation model based on size and age. Curve fitting was performed using nonlinear mixed effects models.

Results: There were 16 publications reporting

an estimate of CL after intravenous administration in children, although few estimates were available from 44-80 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). CL maturation, standardized to a 70 -kg person was described using the Hill equation. Mature CL was 523 (CV 32%, 95% CI 469, 597) ml.min(-1).70 kg(-1). The maturation half-time was 73.6 (95% CI 59.4, 80.0) weeks PMA and the Hill coefficient 3 (95% selleckchem CI 2.2, 4.1). Predicted CL changes with age based on this model were in close agreement with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. A comparison with a published PBPK model predictions revealed a root mean squared prediction error (precision) of 4.0% (95% CI 1.1, 5.8) and bias was -0.9% (95% CI -4.3, 2.6).

Conclusions: Previously published pharmacokinetic parameters can be used to develop maturation models that address gaps in current knowledge regarding the influence of age on a drug’s disposition. If a midazolam sedation target concentration of 0.1 mg.

The inflammatory response and endothelialization of the neck were

The inflammatory response and endothelialization of the neck were similar in all groups.

Expansile hydrogel devices have led to increased progressive occlusion, while degradable polymer devices led to an increased rate of thrombus organization compared with platinum coils.”
“Purpose: To determine magnetic resonance (MR) enteroclysis findings in patients with Cl-amidine price uncomplicated celiac disease (CD), refractory CD (RCD) type I, and RCD type II, to develop and validate a scoring system to identify patients with RCD II and to determine the diagnostic accuracy of MR enteroclysis to detect CD-related malignancies.

Materials and Methods: This study was performed with

approval of the institutional review board. One radiologist blinded to clinical details retrospectively evaluated quantitative and qualitative criteria of 28 studies obtained in symptomatic patients with CD (uncomplicated CD, n = 10; RCD I, n =

8; RCD II, n = 10). A scoring system was developed by using parameters identified in multivariate analysis to be associated with RCD II, which two radiologists evaluated in a second group of 40 symptomatic patients with CD. Accuracy to detect malignancy was assessed in the total study this website group. Cumulative survival was evaluated in the total study group by using the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: MR enteroclysis could not be used to discriminate between uncomplicated CD and RCD I. The presence of less than 10 folds per 5 cm jejunum, mesenteric fat infiltration, and bowel wall thickening were associated with RCD II. A positive MR score was defined as the presence of two or more of these features. In the validation group, AP24534 chemical structure the MR score was positive in 13 of 15 patients with RCD II (sensitivity, 0.87) and negative in 24 of 25 patients without RCD II (specificity, 0.96). The 5-year survival rate was 95% in patients with a negative MR score and 56% in patients with a positive MR score (P < .0001). MR enteroclysis helped to identify the

presence of seven of eight malignancies and to diagnose absence of malignancy in 58 of 60 studies.

Conclusion: MR enteroclysis can be used to investigate the presence of RCD II or malignancy in symptomatic patients with CD. (C) RSNA, 2011″
“Background/aims: Two unrelated patients found to have hereditary vitamin D resistant rickets (HVDRR) were admitted to our hospital.

Methods: This article describes the diagnosis, management and molecular basis for their disease.

Results: Both patients had severe growth and motor developmental retardation, rickets with chest deformities and pulmonary abnormalities, but no alopecia. Both had hypocalcemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism and susceptibility to pulmonary infections. In both cases, good response with normalization of abnormal biochemistries and healing of rickets was achieved with IV calcium infusion. Subsequently, improvement was maintained with oral calcium.


and aims: CD44 and its splice variants


and aims: CD44 and its splice variants can be expressed on all leukocytes, conferring adhesive properties and enhancing cellular recruitment to the endothelium during inflammation. CD44 expression is increased in inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and CD44 variant 3 (CD44v3) expression may be associated with inflammation. We have examined CD44 and CD44v3 expression on peripheral blood monocytes from patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and healthy controls. We have also examined the effect of fish oil supplementation on these markers.

Methods and results: CD44 and CD44v3 were assessed at baseline and following dietary supplementation with fish oil for 12 weeks in both PAD and control groups. Monocytes from PAD patients had higher CD44 expression than those from controls (median intensity fluorescence Kinase Inhibitor Library order (MIF): 480 +/- 278 vs 336 +/- 251 (mean SD); p < 0.001). Following 12 weeks dietary supplementation with fish oil, CD44 expression was reduced in PAD patients (MIF: 480 278 vs 427 262; p = 0.05) but not in controls (336 +/- 251 vs 355 +/- 280;

ns). Monocyte CD44v3 expression was lower in cultured monocytes from PAD patients compared to those from controls (0.15 +/- 0.15 vs 0.22 +/- 0.140D units; p < 0.02). This was increased in the PAD group following fish oil supplementation (0.15 +/- 0.14 to 0.27 +/- 0.23 OD units; p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Monocyte CD44 and CD44v3 expression are P5091 mw altered in arterial disease but are returned towards levels seen in control subjects by dietary fish oil supplementation. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Study Design. Analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys.

Objective. To investigate the prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain and concurrent low back pain and psychological distress in a geographical area over a 16-year period.

Summary of Background Data. A large Autophagy animal study number of studies have shown that nonspecific neck, shoulder, and arm pain is a very common symptom in the general population. However, few studies have followed the prevalence

of neck-shoulder-arm pain within a geographical area, in order to investigate time-trends.

Methods. This study provides an analysis of questionnaire data collected every 4 years between 1990 and 2006 on the prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain and concurrent low back pain or psychological distress in the County of Stockholm, Sweden (response rate: 61%-69%). All individuals aged 21 to 64 years (n = 1976-26,611) were included in the study.

Results. Over the 16-year period, the prevalence of self-reported neck-shoulder-arm pain rose slightly, from 22.8% to 25.0% among females (prevalence rate ratio [PRR]: 1.10) and from 12.8% to 15.4% among males (PRR: 1.21). The prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain with concurrent low back pain also rose slightly, from 8.4% to 10.8% among females (PRR: 1.

The cut-off value was calculated by receiver-operator curve (ROC)

The cut-off value was calculated by receiver-operator curve (ROC) analysis.

ResultsFactors associated with poor clinical course were advanced age (P<0.01), history of gynecological open surgery (P<0.05), any cystic lesion detected by ultrasonography (P<0.05)

and high CRP levels (P<0.05). High CRP levels and intrauterine operation before onset were independently associated with poor clinical course. The cut-off value for CRP was 4.4mg/dL.

ConclusionThis study identified variables that can predict poor clinical course of PID. These results can assist gynecologists with identifying patients at OICR-9429 molecular weight risk and optimizing the choice of management.”
“BACKGROUND: selleck inhibitor 2,2′-disbenzothiazole disulfide is widely used as a vulcanization

accelerator in rubber production and as an intermediate in the drug industry. Its current industrial process, the oxidation of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole by sodium nitrite in acidic solution, produces large quantities of liquid waste water. A novel and green synthetic method was developed, which used dioxygen as the oxidant and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidyl-1-oxyl (TEMPO) as the catalyst without any metallic compounds.

RESULTS: The conditions, including temperature, solvents, amount of catalyst, dioxygen pressure and time, were optimized. Thus 94% yield of 2,2′-disbenzothiazole disulfide

was obtained at 60 degrees C in acetonitrile under 0.2 MPa oxygen pressure for 3 h. Theoretical calculations and UV spectra showed that hydrogen-transfer reaction between 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and TEMPO was the key step, and 2,2′-disbenzothiazole disulfide was generated by the coupling of the formed thiyl radical of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole.

CONCLUSION: 2,2′-disbenzothiazole disulfide was prepared efficiently by aerobic oxidative coupling of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole Volasertib cell line with TEMPO as the catalyst. This ‘environmentally friendly’ approach with easy handling, mild reaction conditions and simple separation represents a viable means of producing 2,2′-disbenzothiazole disulfide. (C) 2011 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Adenocarcinoma of the vermiform appendix is a rare disease that constitutes less than 0.5% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. A patient was admitted with abdominal discomfort and urinary frequency but no symptoms suggestive of enterovesical fistula, e.g. pneumaturia or urinary tract infection. She was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the appendix with a fistula to the urinary bladder.

Both the EB and the magnetotransport properties have been explain

Both the EB and the magnetotransport properties have been explained, considering the presence of a structurally disordered component of the NiO matrix around the Ni nanocrystallites, whose spin-glass-like magnetic character rules the interface exchange interaction with the Ni phase and the spin-dependent conductivity. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3626063]“
“Background and aim: To assess cardiovascular risk distribution, distribution of individual low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol target and distance of LDL cholesterol from the target in a representative sample of the Italian population.

Methods and results:

Cross-sectional, population-based Selleckchem eFT-508 study of a representative sample of the Italian adult population, comprising 5458 individuals (from 40 to 79 years of age, both sexes) from general practices in Italy.

Of the subjects, 65.2% were in the low-cardiovascular-risk class, whereas 10.5%, 18.3% and 6.0% had moderate, high, and very high cardiovascular risk profiles, respectively; 8.2% of the subjects were treated with statins at enrolment. Of the cohort, 68.3% displayed LDL-cholesterol values below their

LDL target, as calculated according to their individual risk profile. Among the 31.7% ‘not ML323 cell line at target’, 42.3% were <= 15%, 44.3% were between 15% and 40% and 13.4% were >40% over their LDL target.

Conclusions: SGLT inhibitor About two-thirds of adults in a low-cardiovascular-risk country, such as Italy, have LDL-cholesterol levels ‘at target’, as defined in current guidelines. Accordingly, the remaining subjects require a lifestyle or pharmacological intervention to reach their target; 24% of the total cohort, in detail, need to be treated with a statin (or to continue the prescribed statin treatment) to reach the proper LDL target. This type of data analysis might help to optimise resource allocation in preventive medicine. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Insect bite hypersensitivity

(IBH) is a seasonal recurrent allergic reaction of horses to the bites of certain Culicoides spp. and is found throughout the world. The aim of our study was to estimate the heritability and repeatability of IBH in the Dutch Shetland pony population. A total of 7,924 IBH scores on 6,073 mares were collected during foal inspections in 2003, 2005, and 2006. Mares were scored for clinical symptoms of IBH from June until February by 16 inspectors. Of all mares, 74.4% (n = 4,520) had a single observation, 20.7% (n = 1,255) had 2 observations, and 4.9% (n = 298) had 3 observations in different years. The overall mean IBH prevalence was 8.8%. Heritability was 0.08 (SE = 0.02) on the observed binary scale and 0.24 (SE = 0.06) on the underlying continuous scale. Repeatability was 0.30 (SE = 0.

The variation in the resistivity was in a narrow range (14%) over

The variation in the resistivity was in a narrow range (14%) over a Si wafer. The TEM imaging revealed that the Al substituted

nanowire had a bamboo-like structure with grains larger than 1.6 mu m. The electromigration activation energy was 0.72 eV, which is comparable to that of a pure Al wire with a bamboo-like structure. The product of the critical current density and wire length was 1.3 x 10(3) A/cm at 250 degrees C; 2.1 times higher than that of a pure Al wire with a polycrystalline structure. The acceleration of electromigration due to current density was 2.0, indicating that incubation time dominates electromigration lifetime. The prolonged incubation time observed in the electromigration test is attributed to the reduction in electromigration-induced mass transport due to the microstructure of the Al substituted nanowire. Even the formation of a small Selleck Bucladesine void immediately after incubation may be a fatal defect for nanoscale Al wires. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3601345]“
“We examined a possible relationship -420C>G SNP of the resistin gene with plasma resistin and C-reactive protein concentrations in intracerebral hemorrhage. Three hundred

and forty-four Chinese Han patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and 344 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in our study. Plasma resistin and C-reactive concentrations were measured and SNP -420C>G was genotyped. The genotype frequencies in controls and patients were not significantly different (P = 0.672). Plasma resistin and C-reactive protein levels were significantly different between the SNP -420C>G genotypes, even after adjustment GSK1210151A for age, gender and body mass index. The common homozygote (C-C) had the lowest resistin and C-reactive protein plasma concentrations; the

plasma resistin and C-reactive protein concentrations in the heterozygote (C-G) and the rare allele homozygote (G-G) did not differ significantly. Plasma resistin levels were significantly associated with plasma C-reactive protein level. We conclude that SNP -420C>G of the resistin Adriamycin DNA Damage inhibitor gene could be involved in the inflammatory component of intracerebral hemorrhage through enhanced production of resistin.”
“For selected indications, coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography is an established clinical technology for evaluation in patients suspected of having or known to have coronary artery disease. In coronary CT angiography, image quality is highly dependent on heart rate, with heart rate reduction to less than 60 beats per minute being important for both image quality and radiation dose reduction, especially when single-source CT scanners are used. beta-Blockers are the first-line option for short-term reduction of heart rate prior to coronary CT angiography. In recent years, multiple beta-blocker administration protocols with oral and/or intravenous application have been proposed.

Mediators of inflammation, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and in

Mediators of inflammation, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin-6, are primary regulators of alveolar bone destruction in periodontitis. The present study aimed to comparatively investigate the effects of in vitro supragingival and subgingival biofilms, on the regulation of PGE2 and interleukin-6 in human gingival fibroblasts. The cells were challenged with culture supernatants of the two biofilms for 6 similar to h. Cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2, an enzyme responsible for the conversion of PGE2, and interleukin-6 gene expression were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. The production of

PGE2 and interleukin-6 by the cells was analysed by ELISA. While the learn more supragingival biofilm did not induce significant changes, the subgingival biofilm caused an 8.6- and 2.9-fold enhancement of COX-2 and interleukin-6 gene expression, respectively, and a 72.5- and 1.5-fold enhancement of PGE2and interleukin-6 production, respectively. In conclusion, subgingival biofilms are potent inducers of PGE2 in gingival fibroblasts, providing further AZ 628 order mechanistic

insights into the association of subgingival biofilms with bone resorption periodontitis.”
“Heterotrimeric G proteins act as the physical nexus between numerous receptors that respond to extracellular signals and proteins that drive the cytoplasmic response. The G alpha subunit of the G protein, in particular, is highly constrained due to its many interactions with proteins that control or react to its conformational state. Various organisms contain differing sets of G alpha-interacting proteins, clearly indicating that shifts in sequence and associated G alpha functionality were acquired over time. These numerous interactions constrained much of G alpha evolution; yet G alpha has diversified, through poorly understood processes, into several functionally specialized classes, each with a unique set of interacting proteins. Applying a synthetic sequence-based approach to mammalian G alpha subunits, we established a set buy CH5183284 of seventy-five evolutionarily important class-distinctive residues,

sites where a single G alpha class is differentiated from the three other classes. We tested the hypothesis that shifts at these sites are important for class-specific functionality. Importantly, we mapped known and well-studied class-specific functionalities from all four mammalian classes to sixteen of our class-distinctive sites, validating the hypothesis. Our results show how unique functionality can evolve through the recruitment of residues that were ancestrally functional. We also studied acquisition of functionalities by following these evolutionarily important sites in non-mammalian organisms. Our results suggest that many class-distinctive sites were established early on in eukaryotic diversification and were critical for the establishment of new G alpha classes, whereas others arose in punctuated bursts throughout metazoan evolution.

For t>0 81 nm, continuous Fe layers are formed The evolution

For t>0.81 nm, continuous Fe layers are formed. The evolution of the shapes and sizes of the particles is reflected in the magnetic properties of the investigated films. A crossover from superparamagnetic to ferromagnetic behavior upon formation of a continuous Fe layer is observed. The fit of zero field cooled and field cooled

susceptibility measurements and magnetization curves using Curie-Weiss law and a weighted sum of Langevin functions, respectively, allows the estimation of the average granule buy Vorasidenib size for the films with t < 0.61 nm. The results of the estimations correlate with the data obtained from TEM images. Reduction of saturation magnetization for Fe nanoparticles and an increase of the coercivity up to 1200 Oe at low temperatures were found. It is attributed to the formation of Fe-core/FeO(x)-shell structured nanocrystals. The oxide shell gives rise to a strong contribution of surface anisotropy.

Isotropic tunneling magnetoresistance up to similar to 3% at room temperature and in magnetic field up to 18 kOe was found for the film with t=0.61 nm. For higher t, an anisotropic magnetoresistance typical for continuous ferromagnetic films was observed.”
“This study aimed to analyze the Thiazovivin datasheet characteristics of extracted protein enzymes from over-matured, used-up fruits such as kiwifruit, grape, apple, and pear; and to apply these extracts as a tenderizer for beef sausage. Kiwifruit showed the highest protease activity (921.08 unit), and grape showed medium activity (225.86 unit), whereas pear and apple showed lower values (97.75 and 78.29 unit, respectively). After 2 weeks, the protease

activity of all over-matured fruits increased by approximately 16.9%, and the maximum protease activity appeared in the temperature range of 50-60A degrees C, depending on the fruit extract. Failure stress was measured after adding the over-matured fruit extracts to the beef, and various tenderizers were manufactured using an optimizing technique according to a mixing ratio by each protease activity. The more kiwifruit content was ASP2215 cell line added, the more the beef texture became soft. The optimum mixing ratio was categorized according to age groups such as elderly, middle, and young people.”
“A sensitive and simple liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method for determination of nicardipine in rat plasma using one-step protein precipitation was developed and validated. After addition of midazolam as internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used hi sample preparation. Chromatographically separation was achieved on an SB-C18 (2.1 mm x 150 mm, 5 mu m) column with acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase with gradient elution. Electrospray ionization (ESI) source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was used to quantification using target fragment ions m/z 480.

“Background: Access to the frontal sinus remains a challen

“Background: Access to the frontal sinus remains a challenging problem for the craniofacial surgeon. A wide array of techniques including

minimally invasive endoscopic approaches have been described. Here we present our technique using medical modeling to gain fast and safe access for multiple indications.

Methods: Computer-aided surgery involves several distinct phases: planning, modeling, surgery, and evaluation. Computer-aided, precise cutting guides are designed preoperatively and allowed to perfectly outline and then cut the anterior table of the frontal sinus at its junction to the surrounding frontal bone. The outcomes are evaluated by postoperative three-dimensional computed tomography BTSA1 research buy scan.

Results: Eight patients sustaining frontal sinus fractures were treated with the aid of medical modeling. Three patients (37.5%) had isolated anterior table fractures, and 4 (50%) had combined anterior and posterior Daporinad purchase table fractures, whereas 1 patient (12.5%) sustained isolated posterior table fractures. Operative times were significantly shorter using the cutting guides, and fracture reduction was more

precise. There was no statistically significant difference in complication rates or overall patient satisfaction.

Conclusions: The surgical approach to the frontal sinus can be made more efficient, safe, and precise when using computer-aided medical modeling to create customized cutting guides.”
“Hypothesis: High-resolution temporal bone computed tomography (CT) may erroneously demonstrate a superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) where none exists and inaccurately display the size of a dehiscence.

Background: CT is an integral component of the diagnosis of SSCD. The prevalence of dehiscence as measured on computed tomographic scan is approximately eightfold higher than that on histologic studies, suggesting that CT may have AZD1080 order a relatively low specificity for identifying canal dehiscence.

This, in turn, can lead to an inappropriate diagnosis and treatment plan.

Methods: We quantified the accuracy of CT in identifying a dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal in a cadaver model using microCT as a gold standard. The superior canals of 11 cadaver heads were blue lined. Twelve of the 22 ears were further drilled to create fenestrations of varying sizes. Heads were imaged using medical CT, followed by microCT scans of the temporal bones at 18-Hm resolution. Diagnosis of dehiscence and measurements of dehiscence size were performed on clinical CT and compared with that of microCT.

Results: Clinical CT identified 7 of 8 intact canals as dehiscent and tended to overestimate the size of smaller fenestrations, particularly those surrounded by thin bone.