One representative experiment of three is also included in the fi

One representative experiment of three is also included in the figure, showing a representative field in a culture well photographed using an inverted phase contrast microscope and a mixed lymphocyte reaction was allowed to proceed for 3 days, T-cell proliferation was analyzed

by flow cytometry and presented as a percentage of dividing cells (A). Cells were then examined for cytokine release after 48 h. IFN-γ and IL-4 were measured by ELISA in culture supernatants (B, C). Medium represents the chemically untreated control group. Similar results were obtained and expressed as the means (±SD) from four separate experiments. **p < 0.01 vs. untreated DCs. OmpA-sal induces DC maturation by TLR4 signaling Toll-like SHP099 nmr receptors (TLRs) link innate and adaptive immune responses [15]. The DC response to TLR ligands depends on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 MAPK [16]. We determined the effects of OmpA-sal on TLRs and the MAPK signaling pathway. DCs were treated with 400 ng/ml of OmpA-sal and TLR activation was measured by real-time

quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and phophorylation-specific Western blotting. The level of TLR4 mRNA was significantly higher in OmpA-sal-treated DCs than in untreated control DCs, but there was no change in TLR2 mRNA (Fig. 4A). Moreover, OmpA-sal enhanced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in DCs, but not JNK1/2 (Fig. 4B). To confirm whether or not the maturation of DCs by OmpA-sal was mediated by a TLR4-related signaling pathway, we isolated DCs from TLR2 and TLR4 knock-out mice, then measured IL-12 production in DCs by OmpA-sal treatment. Plasmin The inducing effect of OmpA-sal on IL-12 production was completely inhibited by TLR4-/- DCs, but it had no effect on TLR2-/- DCs (Fig. 4C). Moreover, we demonstrated that OmpA-sal-treated TLR4-/-DCs had no increased expression of DC maturation co-stimulatory markers (DC80, CD86, MHC class I, and MHC class II; Fig 4D). These results

indicate that the activation and maturation of DCs by OmpA-sal is involved in TLR4 signaling. Figure 4 OmpA-sal induces TLR4 expression, ERK activation, and p38 MAPK activation, but not JNK activation. Total RNA was extracted, and quantitative real-time PCR was performed using sequence-specific primers for TLR2 and TLR4 (A).. Cell lysates were prepared and blotted with anti-phopho-p38, anti-p38, anti-phopho-ERK1/2, anti-ERK1/2, anti-phopho-JNK1/2, and anti-JNK1 antibody. A signal was detected with biotinylated goat-anti mouse IgG and visualized using enhanced chemiluminescence (B). DCs, TLR2-/-DCs, and TLR4-/-DCs were check details cultured for 24 h in the presence of 200 ng/ml of LPS or 400 ng/ml of OmpA-sal and the production levels of IL-12 analyzed by ELISA (C). BM-DCs and TLR4-/-DCs were cultured for 24 h in the presence of 400 ng/ml of OmpA-sal and surface markers analyzed by flow cytometry (D).

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