inhibitors and possibility of using AKTi to avoid resistance. Vorinostat molecular weight Discussion Co targeting the MAPK and the PI3K AKT pathway is a compelling approach given the frequent cross talk and regulating feedback loops between these two pathways. Moreover, activation of the PI3K AKT pathway has been suggested to mediate resistance to MAPK inhibitors, which strengthens the potential concept of inhibiting both pathways simultaneously. In our series, the single agent activity Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of the AKTi was more prominent in PTEN null cell lines and the only AKT mutant cell line, while the antitumor activity of dabrafenib was not negatively impacted by the presence of these alterations in the PI3K AKT pathway.
Our studies show that com bining dabrafenib with AKTi had synergistic effects on growth inhibition in the majority of BRAFV600 mutant melanoma cell lines Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries tested compared to single agent treatments, regardless of their sensitivity to the individ ual agents. The cell lines that did not show synergistic effects at IC50 belonged to the group very sensitive to single agent dabrafenib. The lack of synergism in this group is likely due to the fact that 50% growth inhibition was achieved at concentrations lower than 1 nM, which was the lowest concentration in the dilution series used. This makes the calculations of IC50 less reliable and an e tension of the lower concentration range would likely result in measurable synergistic growth inhibitory effects. In fact, in 4 out Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of the 5 cell lines in question showed syn ergistic effects at IC75.
The Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries finding that PTEN null and other cell lines e press ing high levels of p AKT are among the dabrafenib sensitive cell lines indicates that activation of the PI3K AKT pathway is probably not a reason for the innate resistance to BRAF inhibition. Another e planation for this finding could be that, although these cell lines are primarily dependent on MAPK for their proliferation, they also to some e tend are dependent on PI3K AKT pathway for their prolifera tion and survival. This idea can be supported by the fact that in growth assays, these cell lines e hibit sensitivity to both dabrafenib and AKTi as single agents, and the com bination treatment induced apoptosis in one tested PTEN null cell line. Other studies e ploring dual inhib ition of the MAPK and the PI3K AKT pathway using a different panel of inhibitors also found that combinations of MAPK and PI3 AKT pathway inhibitors augment induc Entinostat tion of apoptosis in melanoma cells compared to single drug treatments.
Moreover, in cell lines with high levels of p AKT, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis assay and long term drug treatment assays indicate the importance of both pathways and suggest that PI3K AKT pathway selleck chemical gains higher importance in long term presence of BRAF inhibitors and during development of resistance to MAPK inhibitors. In our studies, reduction in p S6 seemed to be a good predictor of sensitivity to either of the single drugs or their combination. Reduction in p S6 as a predictor of