In spite of the potential advantages of biological grafts in term

In spite of the potential advantages of biological grafts in terms of handling characteristics, and safety, very limited data are available about their use in patients requiring an IVC resection.\n\nMethods: Medical records of 32 patients who underwent an IVC resection and reconstruction

from 1990 and 2011 with autogenous peritoneo-fascial (N = 22) and bovine pericardial Selleck Vadimezan (N = 10) grafts were reviewed.\n\nResults: A tangential resection with patch repair was performed in 10 patients, whereas in the remaining 22 it was necessary to resect and replace a segment or all of the retrohepatic IVC. A concomitant liver resection was performed in 14 patients, nephrectomy in 10 and pancreaticoduodenectomy in 2 patients. There were no

acute or late complications related to graft thrombosis or infection. Three patients died as a consequence of multi-organ failure. Overall survival at 1 and 5 years was 78% and 48%, respectively.\n\nConclusions: The preferential use of synthetic grafts in IVC replacement is not evidence based. Selection of an appropriate prosthetic graft for IVC reconstruction should be based on the safety and its handling features. The use of biological grafts for IVC repair is a valid alternative to current synthetic materials and may in fact be superior in terms of biocompatability, ease of handling, reduced rate of infection and improved long-term Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor patency without permanent anticoagulation.”
“A 4-week growth trial was conducted to investigate the effect of low-protein diets on the growth and amino acid (AA) composition GS-7977 solubility dmso of yellow catfish, and subsequent recovery when the fish were then switched back to the control diet for a further 4weeks. Three isolipidic and

isocaloric diets containing 390gkg1 (Control), 320gkg1 (D320) and 260gkg1 (D260) graded protein levels were evaluated. During the protein restriction period, specific growth rate (SGR) of D320-and D260-treated fish was significantly reduced by 20.79% and 29.21% compared to the control fish, respectively (P<0.05), while significant improvements in protein retention efficiencies were observed in fish fed with the D320 (12.82%) and D260 (19.58%) diets (P<0.05). The D260-treated fish had significantly lower (0.87%) whole-body essential amino acid (EAA) and significantly higher (0.74%) non-essential amino aci (NEAA) concentrations compared to the control fish. After a 4-week realimentation, significant increases in the SGR of the protein-restricted fish were observed. However, no significant differences in the whole-body EAA or NEAA concentrations among groups were observed (0.05). The results indicate that previously protein-restricted yellow catfish can compensate completely in terms of final body weight, growth rate and whole-body AA concentrations.

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