Glycyrrhetinic-acid-loaded liposome (GA-LP) and glycyrrhetinic-ac

Glycyrrhetinic-acid-loaded liposome (GA-LP) and glycyrrhetinic-acid-loaded liposome surface modified with galactose (NOH-GA-LP) were prepared by the ethanol-injection method. NOH-GA-LP was characterized by morphology, particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation

efficiency, release in vitro, and stability. The size of spherical particles was in the range of 179-211 nm. Spherical particles exhibit a positive electrical charge (38.7 mV) and possess high encapsulation efficiency (91.3%) and show sustained release (72% over 48 hours) in vitro. This novel approach for the liposome surface modified with galactose by enzymatic BAY 80-6946 mouse synthesis is expected to provide potential application as a drug carrier for active targeted delivery to hepatocytes.”
“Objectives: To examine patterns of nicotine dependence, the value of the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and its correlation with self-reported tobacco use and urinary cotinine concentrations among pregnant Indigenous women in Townsville.\n\nDesign, participants and setting: Cross-sectional study of 201 consecutive women who self-reported tobacco use at their first antenatal visit to Townsville Aboriginal and

Islander Health Service (TAIHS) this website between 1 November 2005 and 31 October 2007. All smokers were to be assessed by FTND, and 108 women participating in the Tilly’s Tracks project (a randomised trial of an intervention to reduce smoking in pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women) were to have a comprehensive smoking history taken and urinary cotinine samples collected.\n\nMain outcome measures: Self-reported smoking status, FTND scores and urinary cotinine concentrations.\n\nResults: Of 302 Indigenous women presenting to TAIHS, 201 (66.6%) identified as current tobacco users at their first antenatal visit; this proportion rose to 79.6% in women aged < 20 years. An FTND was completed for 152 women (75.6%), with a median score of 4, and 40.1% scoring 3 or less, indicating low

levels of nicotine dependence. There were significant correlations between the FTND and number of cigarettes smoked (rho = 0.56; P< 0.001) and urinary cotinine concentrations (rho = 0.25; P=0.030). Of those who provided comprehensive smoking histories, the median age of starting smoking was 15 years, selleck screening library with a median of two previous quit attempts; 71.4% reported partners who smoked and 27.3% reported smoking occurred inside the house.\n\nConclusion: The use of the FTND in Indigenous pregnant women may assess physical nicotine dependence, thus providing information that will help in preparing quit-smoking plans, including tailoring of pharmacological support to individual need. Quit-smoking programs that better address the behavioural and psychological aspects of smoking within the Indigenous community in Australia are needed.

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