1 All experiments followed the ethical standards for animal expe

1. All experiments followed the ethical standards for animal experiments in toxinological research recommended by the International Society of Toxinology and was approved by the Committee for Ethics in Animal Utilization of Ribeirão Preto – Universidade de São Paulo (N° 08.04.2008). Although the primary structure of Ts15 shares homology with other toxins specific for potassium channels, its effect was tested on a wide variety of potassium and sodium channels using patch clamp and two-microelectrode voltage clamp techniques. The results on sodium currents showed that Ts15 has no affinity for these channels (data not shown, including the DRG experiments). The results on potassium

currents showed a significant effect on Kv1.2, Kv1.3, Shaker IR, KV1.6 isoforms with 73%, 50%, 30% and 22% of block, respectively, after Ts15 addition (0.5 μM). The toxin failed Ipilimumab clinical trial to inhibit Kv1.1, Kv1.4, Kv1.5, Kv2.1, Kv3.1, Kv4.2, Kv4.3 and hERG, when tested in the same concentration ( Fig. 3 and Fig. 4). The IC50 values were 196 ± 26 nM

for Kv1.2 (Fig. 5A) and 508 ± 66 nM for Kv1.3 (Fig. 5B). The current/voltage (I/V) curves (Fig. 5C) showed that the inhibition of Kv1.2 channels observed in the presence of Ts15 is not associated with a change in the shape of the I/V relationship. The V1/2 of activation was not significantly shifted for Kv1.2. Intriguingly, for Kv1.3 www.selleckchem.com/products/bay80-6946.html the V1/2 of activation was significantly shifted (p < 0.05) as observed in Fig. 5D. Fig. 5E and F show the voltage-dependence between Ts15 and Kv1.2 and Kv1.3 channels, respectively. As illustrated, the Ts15 induced blocking effect is not voltage-dependent in the tested range. The blocking effect observed on both isoforms was completely recovered by perfusing the oocytes with free toxin bath solution ( Fig. 5G and H). Comparing the interaction/reversibility graphs of Kv1.2 and Kv1.3 ( Fig. 5G and H) it can be observed that for Kv1.2 the association step N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase Ts15/Channel

is slow (400 s) but that the dissociation is fast. For Kv1.3 the association Ts15/channel is faster (150 s) with a slower dissociation. These results indicate that the interaction of Ts15 with Kv1.3 is stronger than its interaction with Kv1.2. Most known scorpion toxins active on potassium channels adopt a similar 3-D structure formed by an α-helix and two β-strands linked by three disulfide bridges. An important structural feature of high affinity KV channel blocking scorpion toxins is the functional dyad, which has a strategically positioned lysine and an aromatic residue separated by 6.6 Å (Dauplais et al., 1997). Although the importance of this pharmacophore is generally acknowledged, toxins lacking the functional dyad with significant effect on potassium channels have been described, illustrating the existence of other important regions of the toxin that mediate their interaction with Kv channels (Batista et al., 2002). Papp et al.

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