Thus, detection of mupirocin resistance in S. aureus, particularly in MRSA, is necessary to maintain the usefulness of this agent for the treatment of S. aureus infections and for infection control. The rates of hospital-acquired S. aureus infection varied between the different departments of Huashan Hospital. Akt activity During the 12 months of this study, 4198 patients were hospitalized in the ICU for an aggregate of 33,584 days, sustaining 131 hospital-acquired S. aureus infections. The rate of hospital-acquired S. aureus infection was 3.9 per 1000 ICU-days. The other 31,147 patients were hospitalized in
different wards for an aggregate of 386,029 days, sustaining 477 hospital-acquired S. aureus infections. The overall rate of hospital-acquired S. aureus infection in the other wards was 1.2 per 1000 hospitalized days. Therefore, hospital-acquired S. aureus infections in the ICU of the Shanghai teaching hospital pose a greater threat to patient safety than those in the other wards. Finally, we found each ward had its own dominant STs. This is possibly because different STs exhibit distinct virulence profiles, and each ST is related to specific infection types. In this study, we observed that the strains with the same Gamma-secretase inhibitor MLST types did not necessarily have the same PFGE profiles. PFGE can detect genetic variation that accumulates relatively rapidly, and even minor genetic changes (for example, a point mutation resulting in creation
or loss of
a restriction site) can produce a three-fragment difference in the PFGE gel banding pattern [13, 33]. Insertions, deletions, or the presence of plasmids can alter the PFGE pattern without necessarily Amobarbital changing the DNA sequence of the seven housekeeping genes used for MLST, creating diversity in PFGE patterns in the face of homogeneity among MLST patterns obtained for the same isolates. From this point of view, PFGE is more informative than MLST as it involves random screening of the entire genome, whereas MLST analysis is limited to nucleotides within the targeted genes. Conclusion Overall, the present data indicate that there is still a high prevalence of MRSA infections in the teaching hospital in Shanghai, China. The current infection control measures have failed to reduce rates of MRSA infections to acceptable levels for decolonization. The high proportion of multidrug-resistant and chlorhexidine-based antiseptic-resistant clones ST239 and ST5 in the ICU and surgical wards supports the need for more effective infection control measures to curtail the colonization and dissemination of MRSA to hospitalized patients. Selleck PRN1371 Methods Bacterial isolates From January to December of 2011, 608 sequential S. aureus isolates, which represent all the non-duplicate strains isolated during the study period, were collected from inpatients of a comprehensive teaching hospital in Shanghai, China (Huashan Hospital, affiliated with Fudan University).