The experimental range of drying temperature and relative humidit

The experimental range of drying temperature and relative humidity was defined PLX-4720 on the basis of previous studies on amaranth flour films of the species A. caudatus ( Tapia-Blácido, Sobral, & Menegalli, 2005b). An analysis of variance (ANOVA), a multiple comparison test, and all the statistical

analyses were performed using the Statistica 6.0 software. The data were fitted to a second order equation (equation (2)) as a function of the independent variables. equation(2) Yi=b0+b1X1+b2X2+b12X1X2+b11X11+b22X22,where bn are constant regression coefficients, Yi are dependent responses (tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (E), Young’s modulus (YM), solubility (S), water vapor permeability (WVP), and drying time (t)). X1 and X2 are the coded independent variables (drying temperature and relative humidity, respectively). After the surface-response results were obtained, optimization of the process conditions was carried

out by multi-response analysis (Derringer & Suich, 1980). This method involves the transformation of response variables (Yi) to an individual function of dimensionless desirability (gi) (equation (4)) ranging from 0 (undesirable response) to 1 (desired response). From the geometric means of individual desires, the overall desirability function (G) (equation (3)) is achieved. G is later maximized by using the software Mathematic 5.0. equation(3) ABT-199 cost G=(g1n1,g2n2,……,gknk)1/k,where: equation(4) gi=Yi−YminYmax−Ymin,and where Ymin is the response minimum value, Ymax is the response maximum value, k is the number of considered responses, and ni is the weight of each response. In the case of solubility, equation (4) had to be redesigned, so that the minimum Dichloromethane dehalogenase values for these responses could be obtained (equation (5)). equation(5) gi=Ymax−YiYmax−Ymin Fig. 1(a, b) illustrates the curves obtained for the drying kinetics of the amaranth flour film plasticized with glycerol or sorbitol. The drying temperature and relative humidity conditions correspond to the values considered in the experimental design 22 presented in Tables 1 and 2. The drying curves reveal that

a long period with a constant drying rate is predominant in all the studied conditions. This trend was also observed by Tapia-Blácido et al. (2005b), Denavi et al. (2009), Thakhiew et al. (2010) and Da Silva et al. (2012) in the case of amaranth flour (A. caudatus), soy protein, chitosan, and alginate films. According to Da Silva et al. (2012), the absence of a falling rate period indicates that no internal resistance is imposed by the film/gel structure. Fig. 1(a, b) also evidences that the drying rate drops with lower T and RH values. Thus, a higher drying rate is obtained when the amaranth flour film is dried at 50 °C and 40% RH. In this drying condition, the time necessary for a moisture content of 3.04 kg/kg db to be reached is 4.2 h for the amaranth flour films plasticized with glycerol or sorbitol ( Tables 1 and 2).

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