Synapse, 2013 (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc “
“Aim: Both

Synapse, 2013. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Aim: Both hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia increase oxidative stress and contribute to the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). We investigated the effects of alpha-lipoic acid, a

natural antioxidant and a cofactor in the multienzyme complexes, on the development of DN in diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Methods: Twelve-week-old male apoE(-/-) mice on C57BL/6J genetic background were made diabetic with injections of streptozotocin Selleck Kinase Inhibitor Library (STZ). STZ-treated diabetic apoE(-/-) mice and non-diabetic control were fed with a synthetic high-fat (HF) diet with or without lipoic acid (LA) supplementation. Multiple parameters including plasma glucose, cholesterol, oxidative stress markers, cytokines, and kidney cortex gene expression, and glomerular morphology were evaluated. Results: LA supplementation markedly protected the 13 cells, reduced cholesterol levels, and attenuated albuminuria and glomerular mesangial expansion in the diabetic mice. Renoprotection by LA was equally effective regardless of whether the dietary supplementation was started 4 weeks before, simultaneously with, FK228 cost or 4 weeks after the induction of diabetes by STZ. LA supplementation significantly improved DN and oxidative stress in the diabetic mice. Severity

of albuminuria was positively correlated with level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) in the kidney (r(2)=0.62, P <.05). Diabetes significantly changed the kidney expression of Rage, Sod2, Tgfb1 and Ctgf Pdp2, nephrin, and Lias. LA

supplementation corrected these changes except that it further suppressed the expression of the Lias gene coding for lipoic acid synthase. Conclusions: Our data indicate that selleck screening library LA supplementation effectively attenuates the development and progression of DN through its antioxidant effect as well as enhances glucose oxidation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Pedicle myofascial graft should be considered in contemporary oral and maxillofacial reconstruction for the following reasons: 1) the pedicle myofascial unit is reliable and easily handled; 2) on the grafted myofascia in the oral cavity, the mucosa regenerates naturally with regard to suppleness and surface characteristics; and 3) vascularized myofascial coverage of tissues or materials is useful in some clinical situations. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the usefulness of this graft material.\n\nPatients and Methods: Using myofascial flaps from the pectoralis major muscle in 15 patients and from the platysma muscle in 11 patients, several types of reconstructive procedures were conducted in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Wakayama Medical University.

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