he penultimate leaf, or so called Auricle distance was used

he penultimate leaf, or so called Auricle distance was used find more info as a non destructive measurement to gauge rice flowering stage. CSSL50 1 started to flower when its AD reached 17 cm which was marked as day zero after flowering or DAF, whereas the AD for Asominori is 17. 5 cm. Grain endo sperms of the batches that flowered simultaneously for CSSL50 1 and Asominori were collected Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 DAF. The samples were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at 80 C. RNA sam ples from 15 DAF endosperms were used for the DNA microarray analysis. Phenotype and physico chemical properties of CSSL50 1 and Asominori grains Seed starch granules was imaged as described in Kang et al. Samples for scanning electron microscopy Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries were pre fixed with 3% glutaraldehyde for 3 h at room temperature, rinsed three times with 0.

1 M sodium phosphate buffer, and fixed overnight with 2% OsO4 at 4 C. The fixed samples were then washed three times with 0. 1 M sodium phosphate buffer, dehydrated through an etha nol series, and incubated in a 1,3 ethanol isoamyl acetate mixture for 1 h. These samples were dried to a critical point, mounted on SEM stubs, and coated with gold. The mounted specimens Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries were observed under SEM with an accelerating voltage of 10 20 kV. Fine structure of amylopectin was determined according to Fujita et al. Determination of starch, amylase and sucrose content, chalkiness and RVA profiles Starch content, amylose content and sucrose content of each accession were determined as Fujita et al.

Percentage of grains with chalkiness, area of chalky endosperm and degree of endosperm chalkiness were measured according to the method of Wan et al. To separate chalky from vitreous grains, 100 grains per entry were assessed Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries on a chalkiness visualizer to calculate PGWC. Twenty chalky grains were then selected at random, and the Entinostat ratio of the area of chalkiness to the area of the whole endosperm for each grain was evaluated by visual assessment on the chalkiness visualizer. The values were averaged and used as values for ACE. DEC was calcu lated as the product of PGWC �� ACE. Rapid viscosity analyzer profiles were characterized by six para meters such as peak paste viscosity, hot paste viscosity, cool paste viscosity, breakdown viscosity, consistency viscosity, and setback viscosity as described in Brabender.

Determination of photosynthesis efficiency Maximum quantum efficiency of PS II photochemistry and noncyclic electron flow of rice leaves were measured selleck compound using a PAM 2000 portable PAM fluorometer with the soft ware DA 2000. For each sample, at least nine leaves were measured. Measurement of sucrose synthase, AGPase, BE, and DBE All enzymatic activity measurements were carried out in a 4 C cold chamber. In general, five immature rice grains without hull, pericarp, and embryo at the late milking stage were homogenized in 1 mL of solution composed of 50 mM HEPES NaOH, 2 mM MgCl2, 50 mM 2 mercaptoethanol, and 12. 5% glycerol. The homogenate was centri

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