Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is a Gram-positive bacterium that survives not only
in the intestinal lumen but also within macrophages generating NO. It has been reported that E. faecalis generated the superoxide radical (O-2(-)). To elucidate the role of O-2(-) and NO in the mechanism for the pathogen surviving in the intestine and macrophages, we studied the role and metabolism of O-2(-) and NO in and around E. faecalis. Kinetic analysis revealed that E. faecalis generated 0.5 mu mol O-2(-)/min/10(8) cells in a glucose-dependent manner as determined using the cytochrome c reduction method. The presence of NOC12, an NO donor, strongly inhibited the growth of E. faecalis without affecting in the oxygen consumption. However, the growth rate of NOC12-pretreated E. faecalis in NO-free selleck kinase inhibitor medium was similar to that of untreated cells. Western blotting analysis revealed that the NOC12-treated E. faecalis revealed a large amount of nitrotyrosine-posititive proteins; the amounts of the modified proteins were higher in cytosol than in membranes. These observations suggested that O-2(-) generated by E. faecalis reacted with NO to form peroxinitrite (ONOO-) that preferentially nitrated tyrosyl residues in cytosolic
proteins, thereby reversibly inhibited cellular CX-5461 manufacturer growth. Since E. faecalis survives even within macrophages expressing NO synthase, similar metabolism of O-2(-) and NO may occur in and around phagocytized macrophages.”
“Background: Physiological-based pharmacokinetic models have been used to describe midazolam clearance (CL) maturation. There are no maturation descriptors of CL from neonate to adulthood based on reported estimates at different ages.
Methods: Published CL estimates after intravenous administration from time-concentration profiles were used to construct a maturation model based on size and age. Curve fitting was performed using nonlinear mixed effects models.
Results: There were 16 publications reporting
an estimate of CL after intravenous administration in children, although few estimates were available from 44-80 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). CL maturation, standardized to a 70 -kg person was described using the Hill equation. Mature CL was 523 (CV 32%, 95% CI 469, 597) ml.min(-1).70 kg(-1). The maturation half-time was 73.6 (95% CI 59.4, 80.0) weeks PMA and the Hill coefficient 3 (95% selleckchem CI 2.2, 4.1). Predicted CL changes with age based on this model were in close agreement with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. A comparison with a published PBPK model predictions revealed a root mean squared prediction error (precision) of 4.0% (95% CI 1.1, 5.8) and bias was -0.9% (95% CI -4.3, 2.6).
Conclusions: Previously published pharmacokinetic parameters can be used to develop maturation models that address gaps in current knowledge regarding the influence of age on a drug’s disposition. If a midazolam sedation target concentration of 0.1 mg.