and aims: CD44 and its splice variants can be expressed on all leukocytes, conferring adhesive properties and enhancing cellular recruitment to the endothelium during inflammation. CD44 expression is increased in inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and CD44 variant 3 (CD44v3) expression may be associated with inflammation. We have examined CD44 and CD44v3 expression on peripheral blood monocytes from patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and healthy controls. We have also examined the effect of fish oil supplementation on these markers.
Methods and results: CD44 and CD44v3 were assessed at baseline and following dietary supplementation with fish oil for 12 weeks in both PAD and control groups. Monocytes from PAD patients had higher CD44 expression than those from controls (median intensity fluorescence Kinase Inhibitor Library order (MIF): 480 +/- 278 vs 336 +/- 251 (mean SD); p < 0.001). Following 12 weeks dietary supplementation with fish oil, CD44 expression was reduced in PAD patients (MIF: 480 278 vs 427 262; p = 0.05) but not in controls (336 +/- 251 vs 355 +/- 280;
ns). Monocyte CD44v3 expression was lower in cultured monocytes from PAD patients compared to those from controls (0.15 +/- 0.15 vs 0.22 +/- 0.140D units; p < 0.02). This was increased in the PAD group following fish oil supplementation (0.15 +/- 0.14 to 0.27 +/- 0.23 OD units; p < 0.001).
Conclusion: Monocyte CD44 and CD44v3 expression are P5091 mw altered in arterial disease but are returned towards levels seen in control subjects by dietary fish oil supplementation. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Study Design. Analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys.
Objective. To investigate the prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain and concurrent low back pain and psychological distress in a geographical area over a 16-year period.
Summary of Background Data. A large Autophagy animal study number of studies have shown that nonspecific neck, shoulder, and arm pain is a very common symptom in the general population. However, few studies have followed the prevalence
of neck-shoulder-arm pain within a geographical area, in order to investigate time-trends.
Methods. This study provides an analysis of questionnaire data collected every 4 years between 1990 and 2006 on the prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain and concurrent low back pain or psychological distress in the County of Stockholm, Sweden (response rate: 61%-69%). All individuals aged 21 to 64 years (n = 1976-26,611) were included in the study.
Results. Over the 16-year period, the prevalence of self-reported neck-shoulder-arm pain rose slightly, from 22.8% to 25.0% among females (prevalence rate ratio [PRR]: 1.10) and from 12.8% to 15.4% among males (PRR: 1.21). The prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain with concurrent low back pain also rose slightly, from 8.4% to 10.8% among females (PRR: 1.