2003) In the surface layer of S2, the contribution of micro-phyt

2003). In the surface layer of S2, the contribution of micro-phytoplankton was lower than that at S6 (Song et al. 2004). Rising temperatures from the power plant’s thermal discharge have strongly influenced the phytoplankton community, favouring dinoflagellates over diatoms (Li et al. 2011). We found that the abundance of Penilia avirostris increased significantly with temperature and even reached its highest abundance at S2 ( Figure 4). The zooplankton abundance at the ONPP differed significantly from MCCA. S2 was characterised by a high temperature and zooplankton abundance, but S6 had a high

Chl a concentration and a low zooplankton abundance ( Table 2 and Table 4). Statistical analysis revealed that temperature was the major environmental factor determining the temporal variation of zooplankton abundance, selleck products which was in accord with other results ( Wang et al. 2012). Whether the peak of P. avirostris was due to higher

temperature or favourable food resources needs to be studied further. The cladoceran Penilia avirostris is one of the more abundant Fulvestrant mouse and widespread species of crustacean zooplankton in near-shore tropical and subtropical waters ( Rose et al. 2004). Periodic abrupt population increases and high densities of P. avirostris were observed in Guanabara Bay ( Marazzo and Valentin, 2001 and Marazzo and Valentin, 2004). P. avirostris plays an important role in the microbial loop ( Grahame, 1976, Kim et al., 1989, Lipej et al., 1997 and Katechakis and Stibor, 2004). The zooplankton community in Dapeng Cove was characterised by the predominance of P. avirostris in the study period ( Figure 3 and Figure 4). The numerical dominance of P. avirostris may result from competitive abilities that are superior

to those of other, similarly-sized zooplankton, because they can filter smaller particles ( Gore, 1980 and Rose et al., 2004). The rapid appearance of P. avirostris coincided with exceptionally warm sea surface temperatures. Warm conditions have contributed to the success of P. avirostris in the North Sea by favouring their resting eggs and aiding colonisation ( Johns et al. 2005). The abundance of P. avirostris and temperature are positively correlated, which can be attributed to the increasing abundance of P. avirostris reported in this study. The gut pigment content of P. avirostris and Chl a concentration Interleukin-2 receptor were correlated significantly ( Wong et al., 1992 and Lipej et al., 1997), but its abundance did not increase with Chl a concentration in our study. P. avirostris feeds on particles in a wide size range, mostly on nanoplankton (2 to 20 μm), and also larger prey such as small diatoms, dinoflagellates and ciliates ( Kim et al., 1989, Marazzo and Valentin, 2001, Katechakis and Stibor, 2004 and Atienza et al., 2006). Micro-phytoplankton dominated the phytoplankton biomass, with 85.7% at S6 and 37.6% at S2 ( Song et al. 2004). The difference in phytoplankton size structure between S2 and S6 might be one reason for the higher numbers of P.

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