2 to 3 4

mega base-pairs (Mbp) and harboring approximatel

2 to 3.4

mega base-pairs (Mbp) and this website harboring approximately 1100 to 3400 predicted genes [8]. The genome degradation and gene loss in Lactobacillales through evolution have been substantial, with 600 to 1200 genes lost since their divergence from the Bacillus ancestor, while fewer than 100 genes have been gained [1, 2]. Many enzymes are among these lost genes, rendering limited biosynthetic capacities [9]. The genes gained, most of which belong to transport systems and the degradation of carbohydrates, peptides, and amino acids, facilitate nutrient uptake [9]. To our knowledge, no study of these mechanisms has been https://www.selleckchem.com/products/selonsertib-gs-4997.html reported for Bifidobacterium, however since they live in similar environments, similar degradation should be expected. The core genes in Bifidobacterium encode proteins involved in housekeeping functions such as replication, transcription, and translation, but also in functions related to adaptation to a particular niche such as carbohydrate metabolism, cell envelope biogenesis, and signal

transduction [10]. Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria have been investigated for use in food fermentation and preservation; however, in recent years selected species within both genera are being investigated for clinical applications in treating gastro-intestinal and vaginal infections [11]. Interestingly, LAB can be involved in a process known as proto-cooperation, in which two or more of the bacteria work together to produce the enzymes needed Tucidinostat for the synthesis of important substances [12, 13]. This article focuses on a symbiotic LAB microbiota composed of nine Lactobacillus and four Bifidobacterium species from the honeybee Apis mellifera[14, 15], in which the majority are described as novel species (data in publication) and specifically on the extra-cellular proteins they produce. This microbiota were first discovered in the honey crop of Apis mellifera as key bacteria in honey production [14], and similar strains were subsequently found in all nine recognized Apis species and stingless bees in

all continents [15]. It is interesting that these 13 LAB species are always found in the honey crop of honeybees regardless of the bees’ geographical location [15–17], as this indicates that the insect and bacteria have co-evolved throughout history. The LAB microbiota Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 are symbiotic with each other, with their host, and with the visited flowers, defending their niche against bacteria and yeasts introduced by nectar foraging and food intake [15]. We recently demonstrated that these bacterial symbionts have antimicrobial action against two severe bee pathogens, Paenibacillus larvae, which is known to cause American foulbrood disease, and Melissococcos plutonius, the cause of European foulbrood disease [15–18]. These qualities are certainly due to the production of a number of metabolites such as lactic acid, formic acid, di-acetyl, acetic acid, and H2O2, which could also contribute to their host defense [15, 16, 18] (and data in publication).

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