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the study, performed most experiments and wrote the manuscript. RAT sequenced the rpoS mutants. TF suggested experiments, wrote and corrected the manuscript. RPM prepared cultures for transportation. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Fungi are increasingly recognized as major pathogens in critically ill patients. Candida spp. are the fourth leading cause of bloodstream infections in the U.S. and disseminated candidiasis is associated with a mortality in excess of 25% [1–3]. Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is the most frequent opportunistic
infection encountered in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals very with 90% at some point experiencing OPC during the course of HIV disease . Among Candida species, C. albicans is the most commonly isolated and responsible for the majority of superficial and systemic infections. However, many non-albicans species, such as C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis have recently emerged as important pathogens in suitably debilitated individuals . A major virulence factor of Candida is its ability to adapt to a variety of different habitats and the consequent formation of surface-attached microbial communities known as biofilms . Candida biofilms can develop on natural host surfaces or on biomaterials used in medical devices such as silicone and in dental prosthesis such as acrylic resin [6, 7]. The biofilm formation in vitro entails three basic stages: (i) attachment and colonization of yeast cells to a surface, (ii) growth and proliferation of yeast cells to allow formation of a basal layer of anchoring cells, and (iii) growth of pseudohyphae and extensive hyphae concomitant with the production of extracellular matrix material [8, 9].