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“Background Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has strong photocatalytic activity, high chemical stability, a long lifetime of photon-generated carriers, nontoxicity, and low cost, which make it one of the most widely used photocatalysts for hydrogen production and solar cells, as well as water and air remediation [1–3]. At modern times, TiO2 becomes a hot research topic because of the potential applications in the field of environment and energy [4–6].

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